Labour Law Index

 
INDEX TO THE SWAZILAND LABOUR LAW REPORTS
1997 –  2008
 
 
 
DISCLAIMER
 
This is an informal index to the unreported judgements of the Industrial  Court of Swaziland and certain unreported judgements of the Industrial Court of Appeal delivered during the period from 1997 to 2008. These judgements are cited by their respective case numbers. The index does not purport to include every judgement delivered. It has been prepared and issued as a public service to facilitate reference to unreported decided cases pending the overdue publication of a formal set of Industrial Law Reports.
 
PETER R. DUNSEITH
PRESIDENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL COURT
 
                  

               APPEAL
Appeal – no appeal against interlocutory ruling Savell’s Furnishers v Dumisa Lukhele (IC Case No. 161/2000);City Council of Mbabane v Gideon Mhlongo and others (ICA Case No. 13/2003)[c.f. per contrariam Small Enterprise Development Company v Phyllis Ntshalintshali (ICA Case No. 8/2007)]
 
Appeal Court – will not interfere with discretion of Industrial Court except in case of misdirection or exceeding its jurisdiction Swaziland Television Authority v Lwazi Hlophe and 31 others (ICA Case No. 9/2002)
 
Arbitrator – decision is final  and non-appealable, unless matter referred by President of Industrial Court in terms of Sec.85(2) Liyabuya Grocery v Thobile Lokotwako (ICA Case No. 2/2007)
 
Costs – appeal court will only interfere in exceptional cases City Council of Mbabane v Gideon Mhlongo and others (ICA Case No. 13/2003)
 
Default judgement – only final and appealable when no longer rescindable Sandile Maseko and others v Tiger Group (ICA Case No. 3/2002) [2002] SZICA 1
 
Factual finding – not appealable –but incorrect application of findings of fact is an appealable legal issue VIP Protection Services v Simon Nhlabatsi (ICA Case No. 10/2004);Bhekiwe Dlamini v Swaziland Water Services Corporation (ICA Case No. 13/2006)
 
Interlocutory ruling – leave to appeal required SwazilandMeat Industries v Mduduzi Nhlabatsi and other (ICA Case No. 142/2005)
 
Late notice of appeal – time for noting appeal prescribed by statute –court cannot condone Manzini City Council v Workers Representative Council (ICA Case No. 2/1999) [1999] SZICA 1
 
Questions of fact and law – definitions – differences SwazilandElectricity Board v Collie Dlamini (ICA Case No. 2/2007)
 
Record –certification – late filing – condonation  ManziniCityCouncil v Workers Representative Council (ICA Case No. 2/1999) [1999] SZICA 1
 
Stay of execution pending appeal – onus – considerations - balance of hardship Paul Siba Simelane v Tibiyo Taka Ngwane (IC Case No. 171/1998)
 
 

               ARBITRATION
 
Application to make default award an order of court – award patently irregular – dismissal of application Ntokozo Mavuso v A&M Enterprises (IC Case no. 318/2007)
 
Application to make default award an order of court – discretion of court Ocean Shongwe v Roots Construction (IC Case No. 62/2008)
 
Circumstances under which President will refer a matter to CMAC for compulsory arbitration Sydney Mkhabela v Maxi-Prest Tyres (IC Case No. 29/2005); Zodwa Gamedze v Swaziland Hospice at Home (IC Case No. 252/2002)
 
Decision is final  and non-appealable, unless matter referred by President of Industrial Court in terms of Sec.85(2) Liyabuya Grocery v Thobile Lokotwako (ICA Case No. 2/2007)
 
Record of arbitration proceedings – CMAC prohibited from furnishing without order of court Antioch Primary School v Thembisile Mhlanga and others (IC Case No. 392/2007)
 
Referral by president – exercise of administrative power Master Garments (Pty) Ltd v Petros Mavimbela and another (IC Case No. 91/2008)
 
Referral by president – section 85(2) only applies to proceedings instituted after 1st September 2005)Zweli Dlamini v Anthony Angus (IC Case no. 21/2005)
 
Registration of arbitration award SMAWU v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 72/06)
 
Rescission of default award – 14 days period runs from date written award comes to Applicant’s knowledge – ‘days’ does not mean court days VIP Protection Services v Nkosinathi Dlamini (IC Case No. 694/2006)
 
Rescission of default award – 14 day period is peremptory - Executive director has no power to extend period within which application for rescission must be made Stanford Mhlanga v Milito Investments (IC Case No. 202/2007)
 
Rescission of order making default award an order of court Dong Sheng t/a New York City Store v Khulizonke Dlamini and others (IC Case No. 181/2007)
 

               CMAC
 
Certificate of unresolved dispute – required to certify reported disputes that remain unresolved after conciliation – no requirement that claims arising from unresolved disputes be listed Samuel Fanyana Sikhondze v William Barry Rochat (IC Case No. 19/2007)
 
Certificate of unresolved dispute – unresolved dispute must appear on face of certificate Swaziland Development and Savings Bank v SUFIAW (IC Case No. 418/2005)
 
Commissioner – death or unavailability – CMAC may appoint new commissioner to have jurisdiction over dispute Boniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Commissioner – not functus officio after issue of certificate Boniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Dispute – ‘issue giving rise to dispute’ means “cause of action” – each non-payment in a series of non-payments not a separate issue Jameson Thwala v Neopac Swaziland (IC Case No. 18/1998)
 
Executive director has no power to extend period within which application for rescission must be made VIP Protection Services v Nkosinathi Dlamini (IC Case No. 694/2006); Stanford Mhlanga v Milito Investments (IC Case No. 202/2007)
 
Issues in dispute must be precisely stated Simanga Mantana Nxumalo v Alliance Francaise Du Swaziland (IC Case No. 168/1998)(interloc. application)
 
Need for strict observance of dispute resolution process Phylyp Nhlengethwa and others v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 272/2002)
 
Record of arbitration proceedings – CMAC prohibited from furnishing without order of court Antioch Primary School v Thembisile Mhlanga and others (IC Case No. 392/2007)
 
Registration of agreements – discretion of court Cyril Dlamini v Chairman CSB and others (IC Case No. 67/2003)
 
Report of dispute –  period prescribed in the Act having elapsed- not time-barred if delay caused by other party to dispute Cyprian Mabuza v Caritas Swaziland (IC Case No. 591/2006)
 
Report of dispute – period for reporting extended by amendment of section 76 of Act – period under previous section 76 having already elapsed – amendment does not operate retrospectively to take away vested rights – dispute time-barred Happiness Ginindza v Peak Timbers Limited (IC Case No. 80/2007); Noluthando Nhlengethwa v Swaziland Development and Savings Bank (IC Case No. 44/2007)
 
Representation Nomsa Stewart v CMAC and others (IC Case No. 309/2005)
 
Representation – no legal representation permitted at conciliation unless other party agreesPhinda Mahlalela v Musa Hlophe NO and others (IC Case No. 88/2008)
 
Rescission of default award – whether application made within time is primarily a matter for Executive Director to decideBetter Plan Investments v Noluntu Ntiwane and another (IC Case No. 524/2007)
 
Review - conciliator’s decision – industrial court has jurisdiction to Phinda Mahlalela v Musa Hlophe NO and others (IC Case No. 88/2008)
 

               COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
Collective agreement – purporting to restrain employees from exercising their rights under Part VIII – void to that extentSwaziland Government v SNACS and 4 others (IC Case No. 156/2007)
 
Collective agreement – effect of expiry on individual contracts of employmentSAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006
 
Collective agreement – interpretation by Court Master Garments v SMAWU (IC Case No. 561/2006)
 
Collective agreement – registration not equivalent to judicial order – court not precluded from declaring provisions of a registered agreement illegalSabelo Mncina v Ellerines Furnishers (IC Case No. 41/2007)                           
 
Collective bargaining – distinction between negotiation and consultation – scope of duty to negotiate SAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006)
 
Continuous process –arbitration decision on specific collective agreement does not preclude renegotiation of agreement Steel and Wire International v SPRAWU and others (IC Case No. 304/2003)
 
Employer may not bypass Union and bargain directly with employees SNAT, SNACS and SNA v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 67/1999)
 
Enforcement of agreement – no need to report dispute SNA v PS Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and others (IC Case No. 175/2003)
 
Joint negotiation Council – intended to be a multi-employer bargaining forum at industry level SNAT and others v Swaziland Government and another (IC Case No. 249/2008)
 
Negotiation –different from consultation SNACS and others v Swaziland Government and others (IC Case No. 331/2002)
 
Recognition Agreement is not a collective agreement SNACS v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 83/2007)
 
Waiver of condition in recognition agreement – negotiation to impasse required before employer may unilaterally repudiate conditionBoniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 

               COMMISSIONER OF LABOUR
Joinder – application to court arising from Commissioner’s decision under section 26 of Employment Act – joinder of Commissioner not necessary unless his conduct is criticisedRoyal Swaziland Sugar Corporation v SAMASSA Simunye (IC Consolidated Case Nos. 500/2007 & 501/2007)
 
Locus standi – public contract Labour Commissioner v Transdeco GTMH and another (IC Case No. 263/2001)
 
Powers under section 26 of Employment Act, exercise of – audi alteram partem ruleRoyal Swaziland Sugar Corporation v SAMASSA Simunye (IC Consolidated Case Nos. 500/2007 & 501/2007)
 

               COMPENSATION FOR UNFAIR TERMINATION
Deterioration in value of currency – factor to be considered Workers Representative Council v Manzini Town Council (IC Case No. 92/1989)
 
Maximum compensation for unfair dismissal – considerations Edith Nxumalo v The Federation of Swaziland Employers (IC Case No. 108/2002)
 
Maximum compensation -amount amended by statute– appropriate remedy is that prescribed by statute at date of unfair dismissal Havelock Asbestos Swaziland v David Scholes (ICA Case No. ?/1999)
 
Procedural unfairness – court declining to award compensationHilton Dlamini v The Teaching Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 62/2003)
 

               COMPROMISE
Acceptance without prejudice – does not constitute waiver or compromise Edward Gamedze v Roma Investments (IC Case No. 305/2003)
 
Agreement – must be voluntary and informed – each case considered on its own merits Sibusiso Lushaba v Nsoko Trading Store (IC Case No. 63/1999)
 
Court may question fairness of compromiseBoniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Not pleaded – issue not before the court for decision Boniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Parties at cross purposes-doctrine of quasi-mutual assent OK Bazaars Swaziland v Enock Mavuso (IC Case No. 333/2002)
 
Peremption – negotiation of settlement not amounting to abandonment of right to appeal P. Ramuntu Freight Services  v Fortunate Hlatswayo (IC Case No. 366/2005)
 
Settlement of all prior disputes Mduduzi Nhleko v Swazi Oxygen (IC Case No. 211/2006)
 
Settlement of listed claims – does not imply settlement of other claims not listed – parol evidence rule applies Dumisa Lukhele v Savell’s Furnishers (IC Case No. 161/2000)
 
Unequal bargaining position of employee – need to look beyond four corners of settlement agreement Robert Dlamini v Swazi Spa Holdings (IC Case No. 11/1997)
 
Unfair labour practice for employer to withhold payment of benefits to which employee is entitled unless employee signs in full and final settlement Boniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Waiver – acceptance of re-employment – waiver of claim arising from termination Noah Dlamini v Family Fun Swaziland and another (IC Case No. 77/1996)
 

               CONCILIATION
 
Agreement limiting access to CMAC – null and void SNACS and others v Swaziland Government and others (IC Case No. 331/2002)
 
Agreement to discuss dispute does not amount to resolution of dispute – if discussions unsuccessful, party entitled to issue of certificate of unresolved dispute Moses Matsebula v CMAC and others (IC Case No. 81/1997)
 
Certificate of unresolved dispute – required to certify reported disputes that remain unresolved after conciliation – no requirement that claims arising from unresolved disputes be listed Samuel Fanyana Sikhondze v William Barry Rochat (IC Case No. 19/2007)
 
Certificate of unresolved dispute – unresolved dispute must appear on face of certificate Swaziland Development and Savings Bank v SUFIAW (IC Case No. 418/2005)
 
Citation and service – scrupulous observance required because of draconian nature of section 81(7) Dong Sheng t/a New York City Store v Khulizonke Dlamini and others (IC Case No. 181/2007)
 
Dispute – arising pursuant to compromise agreement – must be reported as a fresh dispute Moses Matsebula v Ministry of Education (IC Case No. 519/2007)
 
Dispute – involving breach of common law employment contract – must be reportedRejoice Dlamini and 11 others v Pinks Family Outfit t/a Woolworths (IC Case No. 299/2008)
 
Dispute – what constitutes Magalela Ngwenya v Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and another (IC Case No. 80/2001)
 
Extension of time for reporting dispute – proper way of challenging decision of Labour Commissioner is by way of court applicationSteven Mnisi v Asikhutulisane Savings and Credit Cooperative (IC Case No. 400/2007)
 
Industrial Court cannot take cognisance of counterclaim which has never been conciliated upon Catherine Udoidung v IDM (IC Case No. 33/1998); Hub Supermarket v Andrew McCarter (ICA Case No. 18/2005)
 
Industrial Court may enforce payment of an undisputed debt notwithstanding that no dispute has been reported to CMAC Joseph Velamuva Dlamini and another v The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and another (IC Case no. 440/2007); c.f. Muzi Nzima and 17 others v World Vision Swaziland (IC Case No. 157/2008)
 
Issue giving rise to unfair dismissal dispute – arises on date of termination Steven Mnisi v Asikhutulisane Savings and Credit Cooperative (IC Case No. 400/2007)
 
Need for strict observance of dispute resolution process Phylyp Nhlengethwa and others v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 272/2002)
 
Representation Nomsa Stewart v CMAC and others (IC Case No. 309/2005)
 
Representation – attorney – mandate to attend conciliation does not include mandate to sign agreement of settlement Simon Nhlebela t/a CAU v Lindiwe Maziya and another (IC Case No. 180/2008)
 

               CONSTITUTION
Commencement date Stanley Matsebula v Under Secretary Ministry of Education and others (IC Case No. 50/2007)
 
Equal protection of the law – employees of traditional government have same rights as other employees under labour laws Tom Vilakati v Swazi National Treasury and another (IC Case No. 574/2006)
 
Equality under the law – married women no longer require assistance of their husbands to sue and be sued Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 87/2007)
 
Horizontal application of Chapter 111 of ConstitutionSAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006
 
Importance of an effective judiciary Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 20/2002(a))
 
Independence of the judiciary – unconstitutional for Principal Secretary, Justice and Constitutional Affairs to act as secretary to Judicial Services Commission Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 398/2006); Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Chairman Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 218/2008)
 
Industrial Court – jurisdiction to deal with constitutional mattersStanley Matsebula v Under Secretary Ministry of Education and others (IC Case No. 50/2007)
 
Jurisdiction of Industrial Court to determine whether constitutional rights have been infringedSAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006
 
Jurisdiction of Industrial Court to deal with constitutional mattersStanley Matsebula v Under Secretary Ministry of Education and others (IC Case No. 50/2007[Confirmed on appeal-see The Attorney General v Stanley Matsebula (ICA Case no. 4/2007)}
 
Locus standi of person requesting referral of constitutional issue to the High Court under section 35 of Constitution – alleged contravention of chapter 3 must be in relation to that person or a group of which that person is a member Commercial and Allied Workers Union of Swaziland v The Mall Spar (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 300/2008)
 
Protection against arbitrary search – random alcohol testing – consent of employees requiredSAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006
 
Section 194(4) – intended to regulate all suspensions of public officers, including suspensions already effected before constitution came into operationStanley Matsebula v Under Secretary Ministry of Education and others (IC Case No. 50/2007)
 

               CONSTRUCTIVE DISMISSAL
Common law Attorney General v Nhlanhla M.K.Vilakati (ICA Case No. 8/1998)
 
Conduct of employer must be unlawful or unfair before employee can invoke Section 37 of Employment Act Samuel S. Dlamini v Fairdeal Furnishers (IC Case No. 145/2000)
 
Cumulative impact of employer’s conduct must be assessed Simon Nhlabatsi v VIP Protection Services (IC Case No. 84/2002)
 
Dismissal occurs immediately the conduct of employer renders it impossible for employee to continue work Timothy Makhathu v JD Group of Companies (ICA Case No. 37/2001)
 
Employee must exhaust internal remedies before choosing to resign Jameson Thwala v Neopac (Swaziland) Limited (IC Case No. 18/1998)
 
Employer withdrawing illegitimate demands – resignation thereafter – no constructive dismissal Simon Dludlu v Emalangeni Foods (IC Case No. 47/2004)
 
Indefinite suspension without pay – constructive dismissal Timothy P. Makhathu v JD Group of Companies (IC Case No. 85/1997)
 
No need for formal resignationSimon Nhlabatsi v VIP Protection Services (IC Case No. 84/2002); Paul Lincoln Ngarua v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 188/2003)
 
Objective unfairness Glory Hlophe v SNIP Trading (IC Case No. 69/2002)
 
Repudiation of contract of employment – elements of actual dismissal should be discernable from conduct of employer Bhekizizwe Sibiya v University of Swaziland (IC Case No. 3/1999)
 
Section 37 of Employment Act – onus on employee – objective standard Timothy Mfanimpela Vilakazi v Anti-Corruption Commission and others (IC Case No. 232/2002)
 

               CONTRACT
Caveat subscriptor – Zandile Ntshangase v Pasadas Restaurant (IC Case No. 211/2007)
 
Contra bonos mores – court will treat as void Protronics Networking Corporation v Ntombifuthi Simelane (IC Case No. 275/2007)
 
Employment contract – see EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT
 
Favouring employer – not ground for nullification unless element of unfairness present Rejoice Dlamini and 11 others v Pinks Family Outfit t/a Woolworths (IC Case No. 299/2008)
 
Intention of parties must be gathered from language used Simanga Mantana Nxumalo v Alliance Francaise Du Swaziland (IC Case No. 168/1998)
 
Interpretation – court must have regard to context and background circumstances Stuart Banks v Imphilo Clinic (Pty) Ltd and others (IC Case No. 528/2007)
 
Interpretation – golden rule Martha Buyile Mdluli v Swaziland Government and another (IC Case No. 304/2002)
 
Mistake – must be Justus before party can be released from contract Jeroth Khumalo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 174/1998)
 
Parties at cross purposes-doctrine of quasi-mutual assent OK Bazaars Swaziland v Enock Mavuso (IC Case No. 333/2002)
 
Settlement agreement – see COMPROMISE
 
Unilateral mistake – objective test Bongani masuku v Tiger Security (IC Case No. 394/2003)
 

               COURTS
Appeal Court – will not interfere with discretion of Industrial Court except in case of misdirection or exceeding its jurisdiction Swaziland Television Authority v Lwazi Hlophe and 31 others (ICA Case No. 9/2002)
 
Application to set aside referral to arbitration by President – not proper that President should preside Master Garments (Pty) Ltd v Petros Mavimbela and another (IC Case No. 91/2008)
 
Assessment of compensation –discretion of Industrial Court Attorney General v Nhlanhla M.K.Vilakati (ICA Case No. 8/1998)
 
Constitution – judge cannot sit alone – court not properly constituted unless sitting with judge and two members –quaere: whether President alone may grant urgent interlocutory order SMAWU v Swaziland Bottling Company (1987-1995 (Vol.2) SLR 62)
 
Contempt – see PRACTICE
 
Creature of statute – no inherent jurisdiction Eunice Shawe v Central Bank of Swaziland (IC Case No. 9/1999)
 
Declaratory orders – party entitled to declaration of rights but not facts Sithembile Mhlanga and others v Civil Service Commission (IC Case No. 318/2008)
 
Dispute – what constitutes Magalela Ngwenya v Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and another (IC Case No. 80/2001)
 
Doctrine of clean hands – exceptio doli University of Swaziland v ALAP (IC Case No. 1/1998)
 
Duty of Court to give counsel opportunity to canvas new issues Nedbank Swaziland v SUFIAW (ICA Case No. 11/2006)
 
Further or alternative relief – discretion of Industrial Court only limited by dictates of reasonableness and fairplay Swaziland Government v SFTU and another (IC Case No. 307/2000)
 
Industrial Court concerned with substantive justice, not technicalities Caspa Ntshalintshali v Royal Swazi Spa Holdings (IC Case No. 66/2000)
 
Industrial Court conducts its own enquiry into fairness of dismissal – reasonable employer test inapplicable – new evidence may be lead Central Bank of Swaziland v Memory Matiwane (ICA Case No. 110/1993); Swaziland United Bakeries v Armstrong Dlamini (ICA Case No. 117/1994)
 
Industrial Court – may make any reasonable order which promotes the purpose and objects  of the Act – not a licence to embark on a frolic of its own SNAGAP v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 497/2007)
 
Jurisdiction
            - Industrial Court – jurisdiction to deal with constitutional mattersStanley Matsebula v Under Secretary Ministry of Education and others (IC Case No. 50/2007[Confirmed on appeal-see The Attorney General v Stanley Matsebula (ICA Case no. 4/2007)}
            - Industrial Court cannot take cognisance of counterclaim which has never been conciliated upon Catherine Udoidung v IDM (IC Case No. 33/1998); Eunice Shawe v Central Bank of Swaziland (IC Case No. 9/1999); Hub Supermarket v Andrew McCarter (ICA Case No. 18/2005)
            - Industrial Court cannot take cognisance of dispute which has never been conciliated upon Swaziland Fruit Canners v Phillip Vilakati and another (1987-1995 (Vol.2)SLR 80)
            - Industrial Court has no jurisdiction to determine lawfulness of tax directives or deductions (Lucky G. Mahlalela v Swaziland Royal Insurance Corporation, Commissioner of Taxes and others (IC Case No.154/2000)
            - Industrial Court has no jurisdiction to entertain application for committal for contempt ex facie curiae after alleged non-compliance has abated by effluxion of time
            - Industrial Court has power to review decisions of statutory boards and bodies acting qua employer Mathembi Dlamini v Swaziland Government (ICA Case No. 4/2005); Zeblon Mhlanga v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 210/2003) c.f. Futhi P. Dlamini and others v Teaching Service Commission and others (ICA Case No. 12/2002)
Swaziland Government v Jan Sithole and others (IC Case No. 307/2000)
            – Industrial Court no longer has jurisdiction to determine recognition disputesNedbank Swaziland v SUFIAW (ICA Case No. 11/2006)
            - Industrial Court may extend period for reporting dispute even when 36 months have elapsed Auto Dlamini v Swaziland National Provident Fund and another (IC Case No. 205/2004)
            - Industrial Court may enforce payment of an undisputed debt notwithstanding that no dispute has been reported to CMAC Joseph Velamuva Dlamini and another v The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and another (IC Case no. 440/2007)
            - Interim reinstatement order – Industrial Court may grant City Council of Mbabane  v Gideon Mhlongo and others (ICA Case No. 13/2003)
            - Matter involving armed forces – Industrial Court has no jurisdiction SNAT and others v Swaziland Government and another (IC Case No. 257/1999)
            - Need for strict observance of dispute resolution process before approaching court Phylyp Nhlengethwa and others v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 272/2002)
 
Registration of agreements
– discretion of court Cyril Dlamini v Chairman CSB and others (IC Case No. 67/2003)
-         not necessary to have certificate of unresolved dispute SNA v PS Health and Social Welfare and others (IC Case No. 175/2003)
 
Stated case – wide discretion given to presiding officer Standard Bank Swaziland v Nombulelo Matsebula and another (ICA Case No. 24/2002)
 
Review - conciliator’s decision – industrial court has jurisdiction to Phinda Mahlalela v Musa Hlophe NO and others (IC Case No. 88/2008)
 
Review of decisions of employers falls squarely within jurisdiction of Industrial CourtMathembi Dlamini v Swaziland Government (ICA Case No. 4/2005)[c.f.Futhi P. Dlamini and others v Teaching Service Commission and others (ICA Case No. 12/2002)]
 
Review of decision of statutory employer – quaere: whether Industrial Court has exclusive jurisdiction John Kunene v The Teaching Service Commission (IC Case No. 317/2007)
 
Unfair labour practice – Industrial Court has power to address issues of unfairness in labour matters Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
 

               DISCIPLINARY HEARING
Appeal –charge for which employee dismissed referred back for rehearing – effect on employment status Nikiwe Vallet Nkambule v Swaziland National Housing Board (IC Case No. 100/2003) ; Thoko Dlamini v Sipho Madzinane N.O. and others (IC Case No. 377/2008)
 
Appeal – noting of does not suspend dismissal Lwazi Mndziniso v CMAC (IC Case
No. 8/2007)
 
Appeal chairperson – powers – may cure irregularities by rehearing the matter or remitting it to initial enquiry for rehearing - provided initial proceedings not irredeemably vitiated Thoko Dlamini v Sipho Madzinane N.O. and others (IC Case No. 377/2008)
 
Appeal hearing – not a mere formality – employee must be given opportunity to explain his grounds of appealNkosinathi Ndzimandze and another v Ubombo Sugar Limited (IC Case No. 476/2005)  [2008] SZIC 5
 
Appeal – right to appeal must be exercised within reasonable time Treasure Maphanga v Woolworths Manzini (IC Case No. 225/2005)
 
Chairperson – bias SHCAWU v Protea Hotel Piggs Peak (IC Case No. 195/1999)
 
Chairperson – bias – applicable test Graham Rudolph v Mananga College and another (IC Case No. 94/2007)
 
Chairperson – bias – attorney of employer – matter of institutional biasLynette Groening v Standard Bank Swaziland Limited and another (IC Case No. 222/2008);(cf. [per contrariam] Makhosonkhe Shongwe and another v Swaziland Electricity Board and another (IC Case No. 143/2008)
 
Chairperson cannot abrogate duty to make findings to superior who never attended hearing Themba Tsabedze v Tex-Ray Swaziland (IC Case No. 559/2006)
 
Chairperson – discretion – must be exercised judiciouslySazikazi Mabuza v Standard Bank of Swaziland and another (IC Case No. 311/2007)
 
Chairperson – need for independent chairperson – attorney-client relationship compromises independence Makhosonke Shongwe and another v Swaziland Electricity Board and another (IC Case No. 143/2008)
 
Chairperson – need for independent chairperson –managers accused of corruption cannot judge their accuserNtokozo Joshua Sikhondze v Swaziland Water Services Corporation (IC Case No. 123/2003)
 
Chairperson – not necessarily disqualified by prior involvement in incident giving rise to charge, provided impartiality not compromised Maswazi Hlophe v PS Woodwork (IC Case No. 302/2000)
 
Chairperson should ascertain views of management on matters of policy and procedure in open hearing Graham Rudolph v Mananga College and another (IC Case No. 94/2007)
 
Circumstances when failure to hold hearing will be condoned Maria Vilakati and another v Ngwenya Glass (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 139/2004)
 
Court will intervene in unconcluded enquiry to prevent ‘grave injustice’ Sazikazi Mabuza v Standard Bank of Swaziland and another (IC Case No. 311/2007)
 
Court will not normally usurp functions of internal enquiry Bhekiwe Dlamini v Swaziland Water Services Corporation (ICA Case No. 13/2006); Thobile Bhembe v Swaziland Government and others (IC Case No. 5/2001);Swaziland Electricity Board v Michael Bongani Mashwama & others (ICA Case No. 21/2000); Simon Mvubu v Ngwane mills (IC Case No. 189/1999); SEMAAWU v Tracar Division for Swaki Investment Corporation (IC Case No. 211/1999)
 
Criminal conviction – insufficient per se to justify dismissal without a hearing – employee entitled to contest correctness of conviction Mphikeleli Sifani Shongwe v Principal Secretary, Education & others (IC Case No. 207/2006)
 
Criminal prosecution pending – no obligation on employer to await outcome before holding internal enquiry Patrick Mbhamali v OK Bazaars (IC Case No. 105/1998)
 
Demotion and transfer – stay pending appeal –granted due to strong prospects of success on appeal Elmon Nxumalo v Swaziland Railway (IC Case No. 263/1999)
 
Desertion – repudiation of employment – no need for disciplinary hearingAlpheus Thobela Dlamini v Dalcrue Agricultural Holdings (IC Case No. 123/2005)
 
Disciplinary action – collective agreement prescribing period for finalising disciplinary action –finalisation of appeal during period not required Frank Mndzebele v Swaziland Development and Savings Bank (IC Case No. 461/2007)
 
Duty of chairperson to ensure employee is aware of his rightsJoseph Sangweni v Swaziland Breweries (IC Case No. 52/2003)
 
Employer bound by decision of chairperson Lwazi Hlophe and others v Swaziland Television Authority (IC Case No. 155/2000)
 
Failure to give verdict – new charges preferred based on same facts – unfair SEMAAWU v Tracar Division for Swaki Investment Corporation (IC Case No. 211/1999)
 
Fair process
      -     fair disciplinary process is an end in itselfNkosinathi Ndzimandze and another v Ubombo Sugar Limited (IC Case No. 476/2005) [2008] SZIC 5 Alpheus Thobela Dlamini  v Dalcrue Agricultural Holdings (IC Case No. 123/2005); Maria Vilakati and   another v Ngwenya Glass (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 139/2004)
      -     opportunity to challenge adverse evidence Mshayeli Sibiya v Cargo Carriers  (Case No. 282/2003) [2008] SZIC 10
-         right to appealNdumiso Nhlengetfwa v Standard Bank Swaziland (IC Case No. 288/2002); Joseph Sangweni v Swaziland Breweries (IC Case No. 52/2003); Nkosinathi Ndzimandze and another V Ubombo Sugar Limited (IC Case No. 476/2005) [2008] SZIC 5
-         right to cross-examine witnesses Kenneth Bhisha v Cargo Carriers (IC Case No. 17/2001)
-         right to mitigate before sanction imposed Sabelo Gule v Inyoni Yami Swaziland irrigation Scheme (IC Case No. 31/2004)
-         right to representation – no right to legal representation unless required for a fair hearing – discretion of chairperson Ndoda Simelane v National Maize Corporation (IC Case No. 453/2006);Sazikazi Mabuza v Standard Bank of Swaziland and another (IC Case No. 311/2007)
-         right to representation by union official– shop steward Joshua Thwala v YKK Southern Africa (IC Case No.301/2004);Thuli Nkambule v Juris Manufacturers (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No.176/2008)      
 
Institutional bias Graham Rudolph v Mananga College and another (IC Case No. 94/2007); Lynette Groening v Standard Bank Swaziland Limited and another (IC Case No. 222/2008)
 
Interference by court – employee must establish a competing right – proof of extreme vexatious conduct will suffice Mhlonhlo N. Dlamini v Swaziland Development and Savings Bank (IC Case No. 226/2002)
 
Irregular disciplinary process contrary to statutory regulations – interdict Thobile Bhembe v Swaziland Government and others (IC Case No. 5/2001)
 
Legal representation – no general right – permitted in exceptional circumstances where necessary for procedurally fair hearingNdoda Simelane v National Maize Corporation (IC Case No. 453/2006); Sazikazi Mabuza v Standard Bank of Swaziland and another (IC Case No. 311/2007); Lynette Groening v Standard Bank Swaziland and another (IC Case No. 184/2008)
 
Long service without misconduct –brought into balance where employee denies dishonesty Eunice Shawe v Central Bank of Swaziland (IC Case No. 9/1999)
 
Natural justice – end in itself Graham Rudolph v Mananga College and another (IC Case No. 94/2007)
 
Necessity for Chairman to take reasonable steps to ensure that employee receives notice of hearing Shinegirl Motsa v The Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 247/2008
 
‘No difference’ principle – not part of our lawMaria Vilakati and another v Ngwenya Glass (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 139/2004)
 
Sanction
 
-        charge itself cannot constitute aggravating factorJoseph Sangweni v Swaziland Breweries (IC Case No. 52/2003)
-        reasonable employer testJoseph Sangweni v Swaziland Breweries (IC Case No. 52/2003)
-        discipline should be corrective not punitive Thuli Nkambule v Juris Manufacturers (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No.176/2008)
-        factors to be consideredMaria Vilakati and another v Ngwenya Glass (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 139/2004)
-        theft does not in all cases justify dismissalMaria Vilakati and another v Ngwenya Glass (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 139/2004)
 
Senior manager – entitled to fair hearingSazikazi Mabuza v Standard Bank of Swaziland and another (IC Case No. 311/2007
 
Suspension pending enquiry – whether employee entitled to prior hearing Nkosingiphile Simelane v Spectrum t/a Master Hardware (IC Case No. 681/2006)
 
Time limit – disciplinary code providing – longer period allowed where matter under investigation Patrick Ngwenya and another v Swaziland Development and Savings Bank (IC Case No. 536/2008)
 
Venue – striking balance between right of employer to decide on venue and employee’s right to a fair hearing James Bond v YKK Southern Africa and another (IC Case No. 386/2007)
 

               EMPLOYEE
 
Allegations of witchcraft against – duty of employer to protect John Zikalala v Richmond Estate (IC Case No. 30/1999)
 
Bonus –incentive – employee leaving employ before end of financial year – no entitlement to bonus or pro rata bonus Billie FitzPatrick v Swaziland Retail Services t/a Woolworths (IC Case No. 120/2000)
 
Casual – employee on monthly terms not a casual employee Sibusiso Mkhonta and others v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 256/2005)
 
Casual – not an employee to whom section 35 of the Employment Act applies Stephen Mazibuko v Eagles Nest (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 225/2001)
 
Church pastor is an employee Meshack Zwane v The Alliance Church in Swaziland (IC Case No. 41/1999)
 
Civil servant : see PUBLIC SERVICE
 
Claim for transport expenses incurred during temporary transfer Thulie Nkambule v New Midway Supermarket (IC Case No. 133/2005)
 
Definition of employee in Industrial Relations Act – two-step enquiry Percy Lokotfwako v Swaziland Television Broadcasting Corporation (IC Case No. 151/2007)
 
Deduction of union subscriptions – revocation of authority to deduct – written notice requiredCommercial And Allied Workers Union of Swaziland and another v OK Bazaars (Swaziland) (Pty) Ltd t/a Shoprite and another (IC Case No. 110/2008)
 
Disability scheme – nature of George Green v Swaziland Railway and another (IC Case No. 27/2007)
 
Employee on short term fixed period contract not protected by Sec.35 of Employment Act on expiry of contract Swaziland Meat Industries v Mduduzi Nhlabatsi and other (ICA Case No. 142/2005)
 
Employer placed in liquidation – whether employee obliged to prove undetermined claim for compensation for unfair dismissal with liquidator Swazi Timber Products v Joshua Hlophe and another (IC Case No. 66/1997)
 
Failure to lodge unliquidated claim in liquidation does not extinguish claim Swazi Timber Products v Joshua Hlophe and another (IC Case No. 66/1997)
 
Grievance – must follow lawful reporting channel Professor Mdluli v Shiselweni Forestry Company (IC Case No. 103/2000)
 
Job designation – determination of minimum wage - functions and duties more important than mere nomenclature Absalom Mavuso and others v Sinkhwa Semaswati Ltd t/a Mr. Bread Bakery (IC Case No. 235/2002)
 
Lay-off Winile Dlamini and others v Bunye Bemaswati (IC Case No. 317/2002)
 
Locus standi of employee without work permitWillem Jacobus De Kock and Kenneth Joseph English v USA Distillers (IC Case No. 97/2002)
 
Long service without misconduct –brought into balance where employee denies dishonesty Eunice Shawe v Central Bank of Swaziland (IC Case No. 9/1999)
 
Managerial employee – poor work performance – opportunity to improve Harpet Van Seggelen v Swazi Spa Holdings Limited (IC Case No. 390/2004)
 
Merit increment – company policy providing measurable objective criteria – unfair to deny increment contrary to criteria Ntombi Dlamini v Swaziland Building Society (IC Case No. 36/1998)
 
Policies – implementation by employer – employee entitled to assume that necessary internal management procedures for adoption have been performed Sandile Mbhamali v Swaziland Electricity Company Limited (IC Case No. 124/2008)
 
Quasi-employee – control or sustained dependence testPercy Lokotfwako v Swaziland Television Broadcasting Corporation (IC Case No. 151/2007)      
 
Repatriation expenses Willem Jacobus De Kock & another v USA Distillers (IC Case No. 97/2003); Havelock Asbestos Swaziland v David Scholes (ICA Case No. ?/1999)
 
Search of employee’s home for stolen goods – search illegal – unfair labour practice Maria Vilakati and another v Ngwenya Glass (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 139/2004)
 
Secondment – whether employment contract exists between secondee and host – question of fact Derek Charles McMillan and another v Usuthu Pulp Company t/a Sappi Usuthu (IC Case No. 187/2006)
 
Shop steward – discipline of Themba Tsabedze v Tex-Ray Swaziland (IC Case No. 559/2006)
 
Staff – middle level managers are ‘staff’ as defined in Industrial Relations Act Staff Association of Swazispa Holdings v Swazispa Holdings (IC Case No. 110/2003)
 
Sustained dependence for work Percy Lokotfwako v Swaziland Television Broadcasting Corporation (IC Case No. 151/2007)
 
Suspension – whether employee entitled to prior hearingNkosingiphile Simelane v Spectrum t/a Master Hardware (IC Case No. 681/2006)
 
Suspension without pay – indefinite - unlawfulNkosingiphile Simelane v Spectrum t/a Master Hardware (IC Case No. 681/2006);Bongani Mdluli v University of Swaziland (IC Case No. 167/2006)
 
Tax directive –after termination of employee’s services, former employer has no power to apply for tax directive Lewis Stores v Gugulethu Nsibandze (IC Case No. 39/2004)
 
Test – dominant impression test Percy Lokotfwako v Swaziland Television Broadcasting Corporation (IC Case No. 151/2007)
 
Trainee – not an employee if no agreement to pay wages Nomsa Mamba v Chrisovik Hair and Beauty Home (IC Case No. 153/2002)
 
Transfer – resulting in loss of status and job satisfaction – unfair demotion Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
Transfer – teacher – must comply with Teaching Service Regulations Amos Ndlangamandla v The Teaching Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 28/2007)
 
Unfair to revert employee to his substantive post after he has acted in senior position for lengthy periodNhlanhla Hlatswayo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 398/2006); Lavumisa Dlamini v Swaziland Television Authority & another (IC Case No. 523/2006);
 
Unjust enrichment – employer who accepts benefit of work done must compensate employee Collin Shongwe v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 77/2000); Hyson Mkhatshwa v PS Health and Social Welfare and others (IC Case No. 117/2002)
 

               EMPLOYMENT ACT
 
Agency Shop agreement – amendment of Industrial Relations Act to allow deduction of agency fee – such deduction unlawful in terms of Employment Act – inference that legislature intended to amend Employment Act to allow deduction Commercial and Allied Workers Union of Swaziland v The Mall Spar (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 300/2008)
 
Amendment – Wages Act - provisions of wages regulation order extending circumstances in which severance allowance payable are ultra vires Samuel Zikalala v Jomar Investments (IC Case No. 672/2006)
 
Application supported by full report in terms of section 41 of Employment Act – governed by rules of court Themba Vilakazi v City Council of Manzini (IC Case No. 29/1999)
 
Casual – not an employee to whom section 35 of the Employment Act applies Stephen Mazibuko v Eagles Nest (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 225/2001)
 
Conversion of indefinite contract into fixed term contract – unfair labour practice – contravention of Section 27 of Employment Act Thando S. Dlamini v Swaziland Liquor Distributors (IC Case No. 240/2002); Mandla Mhlongo v Swaziland Meat Wholesalers (IC Case No. 270/2002)
 
Enacted to improve the status of employees – any ambiguity interpreted in favour of employee Abner V. Kunene v Parmalat Swaziland (IC Case No. 139/2001) [2003] SZIC 1
 
Exemption of public officers from certain Parts of the Employment Act Vusumuzi Shongwe v Principal Secretary, Works and Transport & others (IC Case No. 216/2000)
 
Exemption of public officers from Part V of Employment Act - ultra vires Mphikeleli Sifani Shongwe v Principal Secretary, Education & others (IC Case No. 207/2006)
 
Leave – ‘two weeks holiday’ same as ‘fourteen calendar days leave’ and ‘two normal working weeks leave’Master Garments v SMAWU (IC Case No. 561/2006)
 
Prohibited employer practices – section 100(1)(d) – agreement to restrain reporting of dispute to CMAC void and unenforceable Swaziland Government v SNACS and 4 others (IC Case No. 156/2007)
 
Reasonableness of dismissal – separate enquiry required in terms of Section 42(2)(b)
Paul Mavundla v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 266/2002)
 
Redundancy - notice in terms of Section 40(2) peremptory –substantive compliance insufficient where section not complied with Amos Dlamini N.O. v Swaziland Brewers (IC Case No. 262/2000)
 
 Repatriation expenses Willem Jacobus De Kock & another v USA Distillers (IC Case No. 97/2003)
 
Section 22 – employer who fails to complete form – onus to rebut terms asserted by employee France Dlamini v A to Zee (IC Case No. 86/2002); Patrick Masondo v Emalangeni Foods(IC Case No.45/2004)
 
Section 26 – application considered Maswati S. Dlamini v Swaziland Development and Savings Bank (IC Case No. 174/2007);Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation v SAMASSA Simunye (IC Consolidated Case Nos. 500/2007 & 501/2007)
 
Section 33(bis) – operative where there is a ‘buy out’ of shares Rudolf Bock v Siyembili Motors Swaziland (IC Case No. 366/2003)
 
Section 33(bis) – not operative where company disposes of an asset without selling business Zephania Shongwe and 11 others v Iven Mabuza N.O. and others (IC Case No. 297/2008)
 
Section 33(bis) –business, meaning of Zephania Shongwe and 11 others v Iven Mabuza N.O. and others (IC Case No. 297/2008)
 
Section 35(1)(a) – employee who has completed period of probation is covered Abner V. Kunene v Parmalat Swaziland (IC Case No. 139/2001) [2003] SZIC 1
 
Section 35(1)(d) – casual is a fixed term employee - not protected  Mazibuko v Eagles Nest (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 225/2001)
 
Section 37(5) – termination due to sickness Pat Jele v Swazi Observer (IC Case No. 219/2000)
 
Section 37 – constructive dismissal-onus on employee – objective standard Timothy Mfanimpela Vilakazi v Anti-Corruption Commission and others (IC Case No. 232/2002)
 
Section 39 (1)(b) – suspension without pay under this section – audi rule applies Nkosingiphile Simelane v Spectrum t/a Master Hardware (IC Case No. 681/2006)
 
Section 40 – notice required before offer of general voluntary exit packageSAPWU v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 60/2005)
 
Section 56(1)(d) – recovery of salary advance – no restriction Ernest Vusi Thwala v Accountant General and others (IC Case No. 357/2003)
 
Section 57(1) – reduction of retainer as penalty for not reaching commission target – illegal deductionSabelo Mncina v Ellerines Furnishers (IC Case No. 41/2007)
 
Severance allowance – medical retirement – termination at instance of employer -    allowance payable Monica Groening and eight others v Standard Bank Swaziland Limited (formerly Barclays Bank Swaziland) (IC Case No. 326/2001)
 
Severance allowance – only payable if services terminated other than under provisions of Section 36(a)-(j) Zephania Ngwenya v Royal Swazi Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 262/2001)
 
Severance allowance – proper construction of Sections 34 and 36 Swaziland Fruit Canners v Phillip Vilakati and another (1987-1995 (Vol.2)SLR 80)
 
Severance allowance – provisions of wages regulation order extending circumstances in which severance allowance payable are ultra vires Samuel Zikalala v Jomar Investments (IC Case No. 672/2006)
 
Severance allowance – recovery from pension fund, not employee, in terms of Sec.34(3)SEDCO v Phyllis Ntshalintshali (ICA Case No. 13/2004)
 

               EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT
Breach by employer automatically releases employees from their contractual obligations Swaziland Nurses Association v Board of Trustees of Swaziland Nazarene Health Institutions and another (IC Case No. 117/2005)
 
Clause in contract disqualifying staff member from participating in union activities not infringement of employee’s basic rights Simon Mvubu v Ngwane Mills (IC Case No. 189/1999)
 
Contract of employment – qualifying condition is entitlement to be paid wages Nomsa Mamba v Chrisovik Hair and Beauty Home (IC Case No. 153/2002)
 
Contract of service – essential elements Derek Charles McMillan and another v Usuthu Pulp Company t/a Sappi Usuthu (IC Case No. 187/2006)
 
Contract not void because employee has no work permit Willem Jacobus De Kock and Kenneth Joseph English v USA Distillers (IC Case No. 97/2002)
 
Conversion of indefinite contract into fixed term contract – unfair labour practice – contravention of Section 27 of Employment Act Thando S. Dlamini v Swaziland Liquor Distributors (IC Case No. 240/2002);Mandla Mhlongo v Swaziland Meat Wholesalers (IC Case No. 270/2002)
 
Corporate veil – whether to pull aside - question of fact to be dealt with as part of the merits Petrus Mkasi v Thembumenzi Mavimbela and others (IC Case no. 365/2005)
 
Desertion – repudiation of employment – no need for disciplinary hearingAlpheus Thobela Dlamini v Dalcrue Agricultural Holdings (IC Case No. 123/2005)
 
Employee on short term fixed period contract not protected by Sec.35 of Employment Act on expiry of contract Swaziland Meat Industries v Mduduzi Nhlabatsi and other (ICA Case No. 142/2005)
 
Estoppel Zandile Mhlanga & 14 others v Teaching Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 157/2005)
 
Expiry of collective agreement - effect on provisions which have become terms and conditions of individual contracts of employment SAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006
 
Fixed term contract – onus of proof Mandla Mhlongo v Swaziland Meat Wholesalers (IC Case No. 270/2002)
 
Fraud inducing employer to enter into employment contract – employer may void contract and labour laws do not apply Phephile Dlamini v Conco Ltd (IC Case No. 64/2004)
 
Leave – ‘two weeks holiday’ same as ‘fourteen calendar days leave’ and ‘two normal working weeks leave’Master Garments v SMAWU (IC Case No. 561/2006)
 
Leave – leave expressed in days refers to working daysMaster Garments v SMAWU (IC Case No. 561/2006)
 
Misrepresentation - remediesGraham Rudolph v Mananga College (IC Case No. 94/2007)
 
Mistake – must be a just error Zandile Mhlanga & 14 others v Teaching Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 157/2005)
 
Onus on employee alleging employment contract Samuel Msibi v Chemlog (IC Case No. 375/2005)
 
Overtime – no express or implied contractual obligation -  workers cannot be compelled to work overtime Swaziland Ranches v SAPWU (IC Case No. 116/1999);Fana Matsenjwa v Steelman Engineering Works (IC Case No. 32/1998)
 
Policies – implementation by employer – employee entitled to assume that necessary internal management procedures for adoption have been performed Sandile Mbhamali v Swaziland Electricity Company Limited (IC Case No. 124/2008)
 
Renewal – legitimate expectation Bernardin Bango v The University of Swaziland (IC Case No. 342/2008)
 
Repudiation Attorney General v Nhlanhla M.K.Vilakati (ICA Case No. 8/1998)
 
Repudiation by reporting a dispute during lay-off period Winile Dlamini and others v Bunye Bemaswati (IC Case No. 317/2002)
 
Repudiation of material term – amounts to repudiation of entire contract Graham Rudolph v Mananga College (IC Case No. 94/2007)
 
Secondment – nature of relationshipCyprian Vusumuzi Kunene v The Attorney General and others (IC Case no. 74/2007)
 
Secondment – whether employment contract exists between secondee and host – question of fact Derek Charles McMillan and another v Usuthu Pulp Company t/a Sappi Usuthu (IC Case No. 187/2006)
 
Tacit renewal Jan Van Staden v Lonrho Motors Swaziland (IC Case No. 254/2000)
 
Transfer – resulting in loss of status and job satisfaction – unfair demotion Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
Unilateral change in employment conditions -unlawfulSAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006
 
What is – church pastor Meshack Zwane v The Alliance Church in Swaziland (IC Case No. 41/1999)
 
 

               ESSENTIAL SERVICES
Workers in essential services may refuse to render services for which they are not being paidSwaziland Government v Dr. Augustine Ezeogu & others (IC Case No. 474/2006; SNACS v Attorney General and others (IC Case No. 688/2006)
 

               EVIDENCE
 
Data in electronically-generated pay slips hearsayPatrick Masondo v Emalangeni Foods(IC Case No.45/2004)
 
Employer who fails to complete Section 22 form bears onus to rebut terms asserted by employee France Dlamini v A to Zee (IC Case No. 86/2002)
 
Evidence obtained from illegal search – not excluded if otherwise admissible, but court has discretion  to disallow it Maria Vilakati and another v Ngwenya Glass (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 139/2004)
 
Long service without misconduct –brought into balance where employee denies dishonesty Eunice Shawe v Central Bank of Swaziland (IC Case No. 9/1999)
 
Oral evidence – court may mero motu refer matter to oral evidence Mfundo Tshabalala v Swaziland Government and another (IC Case No. 67/2007)
 
Parol evidence rule – extrinsic evidence may be lead to prove that on account of fraud or common mistake the contract does not correctly reflect the terms upon which the parties intended to contract Graham Rudolph v Mananga College (IC Case No. 94/2007)
 
Parol rule of evidence - settlement of listed claims – does not imply settlement of other claims not listed Dumisa Lukhele v Savell’s Furnishers (IC Case No. 161/2000)
 
Privilege – not in public interest – minister must certify Stephen Motsa v Government of the Kingdom of Swaziland (IC Case No. 588/2006)
 
Rebuttal – party must put his defence in cross examination and also call witnesses to substantiate VIP Protection Services v Simon Nhlabatsi (ICA Case No. 10/2004)
 
Video recording Swaziland Posts & Telecommunications Corporation v Swaziland Posts & Telecommunications Staff Association and another (IC Case No. 305/2005)
 
 

               HEALTH AND SAFETY
 
Alcohol and drugs policy – ILO Code of Practice SAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006)
 
Breathalyser test-employee obliged to submit if reasonably suspected of being under the influence Charles Dlamini v Ferodo Swaziland (IC Case No. 168/1999)
 
Endangerment – dismissal fair Sibongiseni Simelane v Swaziland Railway (IC Case No. 214/2002)
 
Occupational  Safety and Health Act 2001 – involvement of Safety and Health Committee in formulation of policySAPWU v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 423/2006)
 
 

               JUDGEMENTS AND ORDERS
 
Amendment of default arbitration award - amendment substituting new party – not permitted Ntokozo Mavuso v A&M Enterprises (IC Case no. 318/2007)
 
Contempt – see PRACTICE
 
Compensation –court must indicate factors on which award is based Havelock Asbestos Swaziland v David Scholes (ICA Case No. ?/1999
 
Court will not normally usurp functions of internal disciplinary enquiry Bhekiwe Dlamini v Swaziland Water Services Corporation (ICA Case No. 13/2006)
 
Declaratory order – party entitled to declaration of rights but not facts Sithembile Mhlanga and others v Civil Service Commission (IC Case No. 318/2008)
 
Registration of agreements – discretion of court Cyril Dlamini v Chairman CSB and others (IC Case No. 67/2003)
 
Interim reinstatementGideon Mhlongo v City Council of Mbabane and others (IC Case No. 31/2003)
 
Maximum compensation for unfair dismissal Edith Nxumalo v The Federation of Swaziland Employers (IC Case No. 108/2002)
 
Reinstatement - considerations Constance Simelane v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 273/2003)
 
Remedy – maximum compensation award amended – appropriate remedy is that prescribed by statute at date of unfair dismissal Havelock Asbestos Swaziland v David Scholes (ICA Case No. ?/1999)
 
Tax deduction – settlement agreement made order of court – agreement providing for payment ‘free of deductions’ - deduction not permissible Luke Maseko v Examinations Council of Swaziland (IC Case No. 35/2005)
 
 
 

               LEGITIMATE EXPECTATION
 
Audi alteram partem rule – Ethwell Matsebula v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 106/1998)
 
Doctrine cannot confer substantive benefitNhlanhla Hlatswayo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 398/2006)
 
Does not arise where acting appointment is for specific period which has expiredTiti Nxumalo v Chairman of the Siteki Town Council and others (IC Case no. 390/2007)
 
Prejudice – absence of -  no right to make representations before acting appointment is terminated Hopson Gule v The Principal Secretary in the Ministry of Education and others (IC Case No. 203/2008)
 
Right to hearing before suspended without pay Nkosingiphile Simelane v Spectrum t/a Master Hardware (IC Case No. 681/2006)
 
Right to make representations before acting appointment is terminatedNhlanhla Hlatswayo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 398/2006); Lavumisa Dlamini v Swaziland Television Authority (IC Case No. 523/2006); Hopson Gule v The Principal Secretary in the Ministry of Education and others (IC Case No. 203/2008)
 

               NOTICE
 
Additional notice – merely a component in calculation of statutory notice Samuel Fanyana Sikhondze v William Barry Rochat (IC Case No. 19/2007)
 
 

               PENSIONS
 
Retirement benefits – part of the quid pro quo in the employment relationship – not a gratuity dependent on benevolence of employerMichael T. Mngadi v Board of Trustees of the MVA Fund’s Retirement Fund (IC Case no. 343/2008)
 
Retirement Funds Act, 2005 – effect of section 31(1) Michael T. Mngadi v Board of Trustees of the MVA Fund’s Retirement Fund (IC Case no. 343/2008)
 

               PRACTICE
Absolution from the Instance Petros Da Silva v Plascon Paint Swaziland (IC Case No. 102/2002)
 
Affidavit
-        authority of deponent Parsons Transport v Florah Dube & another (IC Case No. 57/2001)
-        authority to institute proceedings on behalf of trustees of a trustThe Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation (Swaziland) v Nontsikelelo Nyoni (IC case No. 515/2008)
-        averment of authority must appear in founding affidavit Usuthu Pulp Company and Herman Richard Lemmer v SAPWU and others (IC Case No. 265/2001)
 
Amendment of pleadings SUFIAW v Standard Bank Swaziland (IC Case No. 296/2002);Phephile Dlamini v Conco Ltd. (IC Case No. 64/2004)
 
Amendment substituting new party – not permittedWilfred A. Rudd and 5 others v Deloitte and Touche (IC Case No. 282/1999);Ntokozo Mavuso v A&M Enterprises (IC Case no. 318/2007)
 
Amendment withdrawing an admission Treasure Maphanga v Woolworths (Manzini) (IC Case No. 225/2005)
 
Appeal
-        against interlocutory ruling – no appeal lies Savell’s Furnishers v Dumisa Lukhele (IC Case No. 161/2000)
-        default judgement – only final and appealable when no longer rescindable Sandile Maseko and others v Tiger Group (ICA Case No. 3/2002) [2002] SZICA 1
-        late notice of appeal – time for noting appeal prescribed by statute –court cannot condone Manzini City Council v Workers Representative Council (ICA Case No. 2/1999) [1999] SZICA 1
-        record –certification – late filing – condonation Manzini City Council v Workers Representative Council (ICA Case No. 2/1999) [1999] SZICA 1 
 
Application supported by full report in terms of section 41 of Employment Act – governed by rules of court Themba Vilakazi v City Council of Manzini (IC Case No. 29/1999)
 
Citation – employer must be properly citedTiti Nxumalo v Chairman of the Siteki Town Council and others (IC Case no. 390/2007)
 
Citation – trust The Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation (Swaziland) v Nontsikelelo Nyoni (IC case No. 515/2008)
 
Contempt of court
-        burden of proof Swaziland Electricity Board v NESMASA and others (IC Case No. 480/2007)
-        Industrial Court has no jurisdiction to entertain application for committal for contempt ex facie curiae after alleged non-compliance has abated by effluxion of time Swaziland Government v Jan Sithole and others (IC Case No. 307/2000)
-         Industrial Court will not punish contempt where coercive element is absent Swaziland Electricity Board v NESMASA and others (IC Case No. 480/2007)
-        injunction – lenient alternative to committalBen M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 20/2002(a))
-        onus –proof beyond a reasonable doubt Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 20/2002(a))
-        order to pay wages on due date is order ad pecuniam solvendam Swaziland Nurses Association v Board of Trustees of Swaziland Nazarene Health Institutions and another (IC Case No. 117/2005);Dr. Augustine Ezeogu and others v Swaziland Government and others (IC case No. 474/2006)
-        refusal to hear party until contempt purgedBen M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 20/2002(a))
-         responsible officer of organisation Tom Vilakati v The Swazi National Treasury (IC Case No.574/2006)
-        wilfulness and mala fides required SNACS v Swaziland Government (IC case No. 62/2005)[Contempt application]
 
Costs
-        attorney-client – circumstances giving rise to proceedings may warrant special costs order Mduduzi Zulu v Principal Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resources and another (IC Case No. 193/2008)
-        attorney-client – union’s conduct during strike procedures to be censured Swaziland Development and Savings Bank v SUFIAW (IC Case No. 335/2007)
-        financial imbalance between employer and employee may be taken into account in decision whether to award costs Raymond Mavuso v Swaziland Dairy Board (IC Case No. 1/1999)
-        need to maintain harmonious labour relations – relevant factor National Electricity Supply Maintenance and Allied Staff Association v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 560.2007)George Green v Swaziland Railway (IC Case No. 27/2007)
 
Counter-application – in response to urgent application - proper procedure CMAC v Lwazi Mnziniso and another (IC Case No. 575/2007)
 
Declaratory order – party entitled to declaration of rights but not facts Sithembile Mhlanga and others v Civil Service Commission (IC Case No. 318/2008)
 
Execution
-        Government – no execution to issue but government required to pay judgement debt out of the revenues of Swaziland SNACS v Attorney General and others (IC Case No. 688/2006)
-        Issue of writ – irregular – amount not readily ascertainable ex facie court order Metro Cash and Carry Holdings (Swd) v Danton Mhlanga and 5 others (IC Case No. 501/2006)
-        Proof of ownership of attached goods Petrus Mkasi v Thembumenzi Mavimbela and others (IC Case No. 365/2005)
-        Writ must be issued out by Registrar of the High Court Noluntu Ntiwane v Better Plan Investment (IC Case No. 524/2007)
-        Stay of execution
-        court cannot stay writ that has already been executed USA Distillers v Kenneth Joseph English and another (IC Case No. 68/2006)
 
 
Irreparable prejudice – where none shown, no reason why successful party should be kept out of its judgement Phyllis Phumzile Ntashintshali v SEDCO (IC Case No. 88/2004)
-        pending appeal – interest on judgement amount should appeal be unsuccessfulSwazi Observer v Hanson Ngwenya and 68 others (IC Case No. 188/2000) (ruling on application for stay)
-        pending appeal – onus – considerations - balance of hardship Paul Siba Simelane v Tibiyo Taka Ngwane (IC Case No. 171/1998)
-        pending appeal – peculiar circumstances of dismissed employee –court must be satisfied that appeal will be rendered nugatory unless stay granted OK Bazaars Swaziland v Enock Mavuso (IC Case No. 333/2002)
-        potential prejudice to Applicant should stay not be granted Swazi Observer v Hanson Ngwenya and 68 others (IC Case No. 188/2000) (ruling on application for stay)
-        principles to be applied Manzini City Council v Workers Representative Council (IC Case No. 89/1992)(interl. Ruling); Phyllis Phumzile Ntashintshali v SEDCO (IC Case No. 88/2004)
-        unliquidated claim for damages cannot be setoff against execution on a judgement debt Bunye Bemaswati Building Construction v Winile Dlamini and others (IC Case No. 317/2002)
-        writ – must be issued out and signed by Registrar of the High CourtBetter Plan Investments v Noluntu Ntiwane and another (IC Case No. 524/2007) following Manzini City Council v Workers Representative Council and another (HC Case No. 567/1997);Elite Motors v Mhleli Fakudze and another (IC Case No. 437/2007)
 
Interdict – remedy to protect existing rights, not for past invasion of rights Ubombo Sugar v SAPWU (IC Case No. 134/2002)
 
Joinder – failure to apply at earliest opportunity – waiver of right to be joined Promise Msibi v Ben Zwane and another (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
Joinder of employee in matter between employer and union– interested partyUsuthu Pulp Company and Herman Richard Lemmer v SAPWU and others (IC Case No. 265/2001)
 
Interim interdict – requirements Archie Sayed v Usutu Pulp Company t/a SAPPI (IC Case No. 433/2006)
 
Interim reinstatement order – usual requirements for interim interdict to be made out City Council of Mbabane  v Gideon Mhlongo and others (ICA Case No. 13/2003)
 
Interpleader Elite Motors v Mhleli Fakudze and another (IC Case No. 437/2007)
 
Joinder – application to interdict shop stewards – union should be joined Juris Manufacturing (Pty) Ltd v Zweli Mdluli and others (IC Case No. 471/2008)
 
Lis Alibi Pendens Marthinus (Marius) Christoffel Botha v United Plantations Swaziland (IC Case No. 155/1999); Nhlanhla Mhlanga v E-Top Up(IC Case No. 182/2007)
 
Locus standi
-        firm described as ‘business entity’ Treasure Maphanga v Woolworths (Manzini) (IC Case No. 225/2005)
-        Judicial Service Commission – organ of the government – no locus standi in its own right Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 398/2006)[Ruling in limine]
-        married women no longer require assistance of their husbands to sue and be sued in terms of equality provisions of constitution Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 87/2007)
-        referral of constitutional issue– locus standi of person requesting referral to the High Court under section 35 of Constitution – alleged contravention of chapter 3 must be in relation to that person or a group of which that person is a member Commercial and Allied Workers Union of Swaziland v The Mall Spar (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 300/2008)
-        Swazi National Treasury Tom Vilakati v Swazi National Treasury and another (IC Case No. 574/2006)
-        Trust – can only sue or be sued through its trustees nomine officii – raised but not decided whether trustees may sue in business name of trust The Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation (Swaziland) v Nontsikelelo Nyoni (IC case No. 515/2008)
-        Union – no locus standi to apply to court in own name on behalf of individual member SMAWU v Swazi Paper Mills (IC Case No. 93/1999);Media Workers Union of Swaziland v African Echo (Pty) Ltd (IC Case no. 161/2007)
-        Union – no locus standi to represent workers in absence of recognition agreement SMAWU and others v Leo Garments (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 387/2008)
 
Misjoinder – Attorney General - Swazi National Treasury  not part of Government Tom Vilakati v Swazi National Treasury and another (IC Case No. 574/2006)
 
Motion proceedings – disputes of fact – probabilities – proper approach Protronics Networking Corporation v Ntombifuthi Simelane (IC Case No. 275/2007)
 
Motion proceedings – company as applicant – must appear from founding papers that person instituting application is authorised to do soPalfridge (Pty) Ltd v SPRAWU and others (IC Case no. 1/2008) [2008] SZIC 3
 
Motion proceedings – not permissible where claim is for illiquid compensation for unfair dismissal Juanita Bernadette Balkisson v Waterford Kamhlaba (UWC) (IC Case no. 308/2008)
 
Oral evidence – court may mero motu refer matter to oral evidence Mfundo Tshabalala v Swaziland Government and another (IC Case No. 67/2007)
 
Peremption -P. Ramuntu Freight Services  v Fortunate Hlatswayo (IC Case No. 366/2005)
 
Certificate of unresolved dispute – required to certify reported disputes that remain unresolved after conciliation – no requirement that claims arising from unresolved disputes be listed Samuel Fanyana Sikhondze v William Barry Rochat (IC Case No. 19/2007)
 
Pleadings – replication – not necessary where issue is joined and there is a bare denial of allegations in plea Thomas Maphosa v Max Enterprises (IC Case No. 329/2003)
 
Pleadings – special plea – raises special defence apart from merits – ex turpi causa not suitable defence to be raised by special plea Thomas Maphosa v Max Enterprises (IC Case No. 329/2003)
 
Point in limine – practice to raise in Reply – failure to plead over may be condoned
Samuel Fanyana Sikhondze v William Barry Rochat (IC Case No. 19/2007)
 
Postponement of judgement on claim in convention pending judgement on unliquidated claim in reconventionP. Ramuntu Freight Services  v Fortunate Hlatswayo (IC Case No. 366/2005)
 
Postponement of trial –demands of justice take precedence over exigencies of commerce Robert Mfanufikile Dlamini v Hub Spar (IC Case No. 158/2002) (interloc. application)
 
Procedure – court avoids undue formality Town Tops Trading v Temalangeni Dlamini and another (IC Case No. 312/2007)
 
Representation – Rule 14 of High Court Rules Tom Vilakati v Swazi National Treasury and another (IC Case No. 574/2006)
 
Rescission of judgement
-        bona fide defence P. Ramuntu Freight Services  v Fortunate Hlatswayo (IC Case No. 366/2005)
-        non-joinder in concluded proceedings Promise Msibi v Ben Zwane and another (IC Case No. 17/2003)
-        non-service -order or judgement erroneously granted– not necessary to establish good cause Prahbhudas Chandrakant v Victor Mashinini and another (IC Case No. 528/2006);Mahlangatsha Community Forestry Development Association v Tholakele Nkhambule (IC Case No. 184/2007)
-        whether Applicant can be blamed for representative’s shortcomings Master Copy Services Centre v Lungile Hlubi (IC Case No. 7/2006); P. Ramuntu Freight Services  v Fortunate Hlatswayo (IC Case No. 366/2005)
 
Res judicata
-        desirable that all issues arising from same cause of action should be dealt with in one application – failure to do so not fatal in peculiar circumstances of this case Simanga Mantana Nxumalo v Alliance Francaise Du Swaziland (IC Case No. 171/1999)
-        judgement must finally determine substantive rights of parties Maxiprest Tyres v Sandrino Du Pont (IC Case No. 114/2006)
-        review of proceedings of statutory employer by High Court – not a bar to application to Industrial Court for reinstatement based on substantively unfair dismissal John Kunene v The Teaching Service Commission (IC Case No. 317/2007)
 
Service – party given notice of court proceedings must be informed of steps to take if he intends to defend, and the consequences of failing to take such steps Prabhudas Chandrakant v Victor Mashinini and another (Case No. 528/2006)`
 
Service on company – how effected Mahlangatsha Community Forestry Development Association v Tholakele Nkhambule (IC Case No. 184/2007)
 
Service on company at branch office instead of head office – defective service Maxiprest Tyres v Sandrino Du Pont (IC Case No. 114/2006)
 
Service – proof of Better Plan Investments v Noluntu Ntiwane and another (IC Case No. 524/2007)
 
Stated case – wide discretion given to presiding officer Standard Bank Swaziland v Nombulelo Matsebula and another (ICA Case No. 24/2002)
 
Subpoena –may be set aside at any stage Swaziland Electricity Board v Michael Mashwama (IC Case No. 345/2002)[Interloc.]
 
Technical objections - not entertained in absence of prejudiceCMAC v Lwazi Mnziniso and another (IC Case No. 575/2007)
 
Urgency
-        breach of fundamental constitutional right – good ground for urgency Cinisela Welcome Dlamini v Norman Majuba Sigwane N.O. and others (IC Case No. 509/2008)
-        certificate of urgency mandatory Swaziland Government v SFTU and another (IC Case No. 347/2002)
-        degrees of urgency Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 398/2006)[Interloc.]
-        Financial hardship or loss of income not a ground for urgency Phineas Vilakati v JD Group (IC Case No. 41/1997); SAPWU & another v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 79/1998); Kenneth Manyathi v Usuthu Pulp Company and another (IC Case No. 245/2002);Kenneth Makhanya v National Football Association of Swaziland (IC Case No. 286/2004); Sgidy Khoza & Others v Jerome Xaba (IC Case No. 541/2006)
-        general criteriaVusi Gamedze v Mananga College (IC Case No. 267/2006)
-        illegal lockout: good ground for urgency Tom Manyatsi and others v Palfridge (IC Case No. 581/2007) [2008] SZIC 4 ; [2008] SZIC 9
-        impending violation of peremptory redundancy procedure – sufficient urgency SMAWU v Swazi Paper Mills (IC Case No. 8/1999)
-        imminent threat of manifest injustice or grossly unfair labour practice amounting to victimisation constitutes good ground for urgency Zodwa Mkhonta v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 343/2000); Lavumisa Dlamini v Swaziland Television Authority & another (IC Case No. 523/2006)(interloc.ruling); [c.f. Vusi Gamedze v Mananga College (IC Case No. 267/2006)]
-        interim reinstatement –unlawful retrenchment –issues for determination inherent in every dispute arising from dismissal-matter not urgent SMAWU v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 221/2000)
-        interim reinstatement – urgency Gideon Mhlongo v City Council of Mbabane and others (IC Case No. 31/2003)(Ruling in limine)
-        loss of high profile job not ground for urgency Myengwa Macuba Sibandze v National Football Association of Swaziland (IC Case No. 104/2006)
-        loss of income – inevitable consequence of dismissal – all Applicants in same positionJuanita Bernadette Balkisson v Waterford Kamhlaba (UWC) (IC Case no. 308/2008)
-        prejudice must not be speculative Institute of Development Management v The Labour Commissioner and two others (IC Case No. 83/1998)(interloc. Application)
-        salary – non-payment – only a ground for urgency where employment contract still subsists Graham Rudolph v Mananga College (IC Case No. 94/2007 [interl. ruling]); Bonkhe Lukhele v SDFC (IC Case No. 39/2008)
-        stay of reinstatement order pending review – delay – self-created urgency – application refused Swaziland Electricity Board v Collie Dlamini (IC Case No. 105/2005[interl.])
-        unfair labour practice – not in itself a ground for urgency –requirement of prejudiceVusi Gamedze v Mananga College (IC Case No. 267/2006); Sicelo Dlamini v Ministry of Works and Transport and others (IC Case No. 03/2008) [2008] SZIC 2
-        unlawful deduction of monies due to an employee Swaziland Agricultural and Allied Staff Association (Simunye Branch) v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 395/2007)c.f. Makhosini Gamedze v Fuelogic Swaziland (IC Case No. 496/2007)
-        unilateral implementation of schemes of service that undermines collective bargaining and operates to potential disadvantage of employees – justifies urgency SNAGAP v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 497/2007)
-        urgency not lost  by expeditious extracurial attempt to settle disputeVusi Gamedze v Mananga College (IC Case No. 267/2006) [c.f. Lwazi Mndziniso v CMAC IC Case No. 150/2006)]
 
Withdrawal – discretion of court to refuse withdrawal Caspa Ntshalintshali v Royal Swazi Spa Holdings (IC Case No. 66/2000)
 
 

               PROBATION
Fixed period – conditional confirmation null and void Abner V. Kunene v Parmalat Swaziland (IC Case No. 139/2001) [2003] SZIC 1
 
Meant for new employee – not permissible as disciplinary punishment Doreen Malwane v Manzini Swift Print (IC Case No.255/2001)
 
Probationary period for employees engaged on supervisory, technical or confidential work– must be fixed in writing at the time of engagement – agreement to renew or extend period is an arrangement to contract out of the provisions of the Employment Act - null and void Gerard Shields v Carson Wheels (IC Case No. 237/2006)
 
Probationary period runs from date of first employment Bongani Masuku v Tiger Security (IC Case No. 394/2003)
 
 

               PROMOTION
Confirmation to acting position Nikiwe Nyoni v Acting Commissioner of Anti-Corruption Unit & others (IC Case No. 164/2005)
 
Court loathe to usurp employer’s prerogative Employer’s discretion regarding qualifications and recruitment process – may be fettered by employer’s own collective arrangements and policiesSandile Mbhamali v Swaziland Electricity Company Limited (IC Case No. 124/2008)
 
Employer’s discretion regarding qualifications and recruitment process – may be fettered by employer’s own collective arrangements and policiesSandile Mbhamali v Swaziland Electricity Company Limited (IC Case No. 124/2008)
 
Employer’s prerogativeCollin Shongwe v Attorney General N.O. (IC Case No. 77/2000);Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 398/2006)
 
Transfer – resulting in loss of status and job satisfaction – unfair demotion Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
 

               PUBLIC SERVICE
Audi alteram partem
-        desecondment without hearing – decision set asideCyprian Vusumuzi Kunene v The Attorney General and others (IC Case no. 74/2007)
-        existing right – meaning ofCyprian Vusumuzi Kunene v The Attorney General and others (IC Case no. 74/2007
-        necessity for tribunal to take reasonable steps to ensure that employee receives notice of hearing Shinegirl Motsa v The Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 247/2008)
-        rule applies even where decision made in terms of a contract Cyprian Vusumuzi Kunene v The Attorney General and others (IC Case no. 74/2007)
-         posting without prior consultation – set asideMkhosi Khumalo v The Senior Health Administrator and others (IC Case No. 142/2008)
-        transfer without prior consultation  – transfer set aside Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
Bias – mere fact that first decision set aside on review does not justify inference of bias Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case no.416/2007)
 
Birth date – proof of, for purposes of determining retirement date German Duze Lokotfwako v Principal Secretary for the Ministry Of Justice and others (IC Case No. 389/2003)
 
Citation of government – in its own name or in name of Attorney General N.O.Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Chairman – Civil Service Commission and others(IC Case No. 218/2008)
 
Confirmation in acting position and payment of acting allowanceNikiwe Nyoni v Acting Commissioner of Anti-Corruption Unit & others (IC Case No. 164/2005)
 
Confirmation – court cannot confirm officer who is not currently acting in a vacant post Joel Lukhele v The Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 109/2007)
 
Consultation – requirements Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Chairman Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 218/2008)
 
Employee alleging unfair treatment or dismissal has two routes to Industrial CourtMelody Dlamini v The Secretary, Teaching Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 121/2008)
 
Estoppel – misrepresentation by one department binding on other departments Phindile Jane Tsela v Ministry of Agriculture and three others (IC Case No. 359/2003)
 
Exemption of public officers from certain Parts of the Employment Act Vusumuzi Shongwe v Principal Secretary, Works and Transport & others (IC Case No. 216/2000)
 
Exemption of public officers from Part V of Employment Act ultra vires Mphikeleli Sifani Shongwe v Principal Secretary, Education & others (IC Case No. 207/2006)
 
Extended duty allowance – meaning SNACS v Swaziland Government (ICA Case No. 47/2005)
 
Foreign service employee – entitled to housing on his return home Mfundo Tshabalala v Swaziland Government and another (IC Case No. 67/2007)
 
Government – employer – proceedings may be instituted against government in Industrial Court – not necessary to cite any other organ or agency of government Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Chairman – Civil Service Commission and others(IC Case No. 218/2008)
 
Headteacher – delegation of duties Clifford Maseko and others v The Head Teacher of St. Christophers High School and others (IC Case No. 424/2006)
 
Interdiction – authority vests in Civil Service Commission Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 87/2007)
 
Interdiction on half pay – opportunity to be heard Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 87/2007)
 
Interdiction on half pay – correct approach Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case no.416/2007)
 
Interdiction – requirement for a hearing Bunnie Patrick Mhlanga v PS Public Works and Transport (IC Case No. 130/2003);Elias Madijane Dladla v PS Ministry of Finance and another (IC Case No. 350/2003);Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 87/2007)
 
Irregular disciplinary process contrary to statutory regulations – interdict Thobile Bhembe v Swaziland Government and others (IC Case No. 5/2001)
 
Joinder of service commission – unnecessary if government is sued – chairman may be cited if decision of commission is under review Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Chairman – Civil Service Commission and others(IC Case No. 218/2008)
 
Joint Negotiation Council – government cannot form a JNC from its own commissions – commissions are not employers in their own right for purposes of section 45SNAT and others v Swaziland Government and another (IC Case No. 249/2008)
 
Judicial officer – cannot be removed from office by CSC Nhlanhla Hlatswayo v Chairman Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 218/2008)
 
Legal representation – persons appearing before a service commission – constitutional right – persons entitled to be notified of such right - Thembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 87/2007)
 
Limitation of legal proceedings against the Government Act – demand within 90 days – distinction between contractual debt and delictual claim Meshack Masuku v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 103/1998)
 
Officer acquitted on criminal charge not to be dismissed or punished on same charge – discharge with caution has the effect of an acquittal Mndeni Stanley Kunene v The Civil Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 243/2008)
 
Posting – meaning of Mkhosi Khumalo v The Senior Health Administrator and others (IC Case No. 142/2008)
 
Power to terminate – vests solely in Civil Service Board – termination by PS Justice ultra viresSibusiso Mkhonta and others v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 256/2005)
 
Public office – meaningFuthi Kuhlase-Mdluli v Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs and others (IC Case No. 306/2008)
 
Public officers appointed by King – revert to prior rank in civil service on removal from officeFuthi Kuhlase-Mdluli v Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs and others (IC Case No. 306/2008)
 
Public service - meaningFuthi Kuhlase-Mdluli v Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs and others (IC Case No. 306/2008)
 
Reasons for decision of service commission– constitutional right to be given reasons within reasonable time of requestThembani Simelane v Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 87/2007)
 
Re-employment of officer on pensionable terms – officer already drawing pension – not illegal – does not amount to double pensionJeroth Khumalo v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 174/1998)
 
Review of decisions of employers falls squarely within jurisdiction of Industrial CourtMathembi Dlamini v Swaziland Government (ICA Case No. 4/2005)[c.f.Futhi P. Dlamini and others v Teaching Service Commission and others (ICA Case No. 12/2002)];Melody Dlamini v The Secretary, Teaching Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 121/2008)
 
Service commission – duty to furnish reasons to Industrial Court for its decisions Phumelele Dlamini v Civil Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 548/2007)
 
Study leave – paid leave requires Government approval Simangaliso Masondo v Swaziland Teaching Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 351/2004)
 
Swazi National Treasury – not part of Government Tom Vilakati v Swazi National Treasury and another (IC Case No. 574/2006)
 
Teacher – immoral conduct – expected to set example in his personal life – sexual exploitation of underage children brings teaching profession and school into disrepute Hilton Dlamini v The Teaching Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 62/2003)
 
Temporary employees - entitled to protection of Employment Act – become permanent after probationary period prescribed by ActVusumuzi Shongwe v Principal Secretary, Works and Transport & others (IC Case No. 216/2000); SNACS v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 62/2005); Sibusiso Mkhonta and others v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 256/2005)
 
Termination of services of public officer must comply with statutory procedures, otherwise termination is a nullity Amos Bhekinkhosi Maseko v Swaziland National Fire and Emergency Services (IC Case No. 302/2002)
 
Transfer – irregular because Prime Minister did not act on advice of Civil Service Board Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
Transfer – resulting in loss of status and job satisfaction – unfair demotion Ben M. Zwane v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 17/2003)
 
Victimisation - desecondment with ulterior motive – decision set asideCyprian Vusumuzi Kunene v The Attorney General and others (IC Case no. 74/2007)
 
Wages – deduction – employee entitled to prior hearing Sonnyboy Zwane v Principal Secretary, Justice and others (IC Case No. 308/2000)
 
 

               RECOGNITION
 
Jurisdiction – Industrial Court no longer has jurisdiction to determine recognition disputesNedbank Swaziland v SUFIAW (ICA Case No. 11/2006)
 
Recognition agreement – can only be terminated as prescribed in IRA – agreement that recognition for a  definite period not valid Kenneth Manyathi v Usuthu Pulp Company and another (IC Case No. 245/2002)
 
Recognition Agreement is not a collective agreement SNACS v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 83/2007)
 
Recognition of new union where recognised union already exists – no mechanism provided by IRA SPPMAWU v Usuthu Pulp Company and another (IC Case No. 6/2002)
 
Recognition of two unions for same bargaining unit – recipe for chaos – both unions entitled to participate in collective bargaining Zheng Yong Swaziland v SPRAWU (IC Case No. 206/2006)
 
Withdrawal of recognition Swaziland Railway v STAWU (IC Case No. 538/2006)
 
Withdrawal of recognition – must be applied for by employer Commercial And Allied Workers Union of Swaziland and another v OK Bazaars (Swaziland) (Pty) Ltd t/a Shoprite and another (IC Case No. 110/2008)
 
 

               REINSTATEMENT
 
Considerations Constance Simelane v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 273/2003)
 
Interim reinstatement –granted City Council of Mbabane  v Gideon Mhlongo and others (ICA Case No. 13/2003)
 
Interim reinstatement – refused Ray Sibandze v City Council of Mbabane (1987-1995 (Vol.3)SLR 379)
 
Interim reinstatement – retrenched employee – not competent SMAWU v Swazi Paper Mills (IC Case No. 8/1999); SMAWU v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 221/2000)
 
Re-engagement Absalom Dlamini v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 126/2001); Boniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Reinstatement – meaning of Dinabantu Ndwandwe v Vuka Sidwashini Farmers Association (IC Case No. 520/2006);Bongani Mdluli v University of Swaziland (IC Case No. 167/2006)
 
Reinstatement – retrospectivity – discretion of courtSwaziland Electricity Board v Collie Dlamini (ICA Case No. 2/2007)
 
Reinstatement – whether reasonably practicable Collie Dlamini v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 105/2005)
 
Reinstatement – whether reasonably practicable – requires more than bald statement that position has been filled Menzi Ngcamphalala v Swaziland Building Society (IC Case No. 50/2005)
 
Relationship of trust not adversely eroded – reinstatement appropriate in circumstances Eunice Shawe v Central Bank of Swaziland (IC Case No. 9/1999)
 
Substitution of compensation for reinstatement – considerations Swaziland Television Authority v Phasha Mayisela and others (IC Case No. 155/2000)
 

               RETRENCHMENT
 
‘Bumping’ redundancy – requirementsEdith Nxumalo v The Federation of Swaziland Employers (IC Case No. 108/2002)
 
Commercial rationale Dumisani Lushaba v JD Group (IC Case No. 210/2004)
 
Construction industry – need to retrench on completion of projects Makhundu Dlamini v Inyatsi Superfos (IC Case No. 213/1998)
 
Consultation – employee selected for redundancy must be afforded opportunity to make representations about his individual circumstances Boniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Consultation – must commence as soon as employer senses the possibility of retrenchments SNACS v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 83/2007)
 
Consultation with employee representatives – purposeLonhlanhla Masuku v KK Investments (IC Case No. 341/2003)
 
Consultation with individual employee Thabo Simelane v JD Group Swaziland (IC Case No. 166/2002); Edith Nxumalo v The Federation of Swaziland Employers (IC Case No. 108/2002)
 
Decision to retrench – entirely the domain of employer Nicholas Dlamini v Swaziland Electric Centre and Utilities (IC Case No. 237/1999)
 
Decision to retrench – must be reasonable, bona fide and have commercial rationale Phyllis Phumzile Ntshalintshali v SEDCO (IC Case No. 88/2004)
 
Fixed term contract – retrenchment before expiry date is a breach of contractBoniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002);Sipho Shongwe v Swaziland Meat Industries Limited (IC Case No. 66/2002)                                                                                                                 
 
Lay-off Winile Dlamini and others v Bunye Bemaswati (IC Case No. 317/2002)
 
LIFO principle discussed Boniface Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 200/2002)
 
Notice in terms of Section 40(2) of Employment Act – peremptory –substantive compliance insufficient where section not complied with Amos Dlamini N.O. v Swaziland Brewers (IC Case No. 262/2000)
 
Notice of redundancies – invalid where stated reason for redundancies is false SNACS v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 62/2005)
 
Offer of general voluntary exit package – not a measure to avoid or minimise retrenchment – procedurally unfair unless notice given in terms of Section 40(2) of Employment Act SAPWU v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 60/2005)
 
Pleading - termination on grounds of redundancy – not amounting to admission of lawfulness of termination Hanson Ngwenya and others v Swazi Observer (IC Case No. 188/2000)(Ruling on exception)
 
Prerogative of employer to determine size and character of workforce Dumisani Lushaba v JD Group (IC Case no. 210/2004)
 
Redundancy – mere relocation of operations not giving rise to redundancy Absalom
Dlamini v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 126/2001)
 
Reinstatement – abolishment of post mala fide – reinstatement orderedPhyllis Phumzile Ntshalintshali v SEDCO (IC Case No. 88/2004)
 
Selection criteria
-        no agreement on criteria with worker representative – employer must apply fair and objective criteria Dumisani Lushaba v JD Group (IC Case no. 210/2004)
-        objectiveLonhlanhla Masuku v KK Investments (IC Case No. 341/2003)
-        subjective or vague criteria – need for personal consultation SMAWU v Natex Swaziland (IC Case No. 76/1997)
-        work competency or conduct as criterion – opportunity to defend work record must be given Lonhlanhla Masuku v KK Investments (IC Case No. 341/2003);SMAWU v Natex Swaziland (IC Case No. 76/1997); Enock Shongwe v Silver Solutions Investments (IC Case No. 235/2004)
 

               STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS
 
Ballot Nedbank Swaziland v SUFIAW (ICA Case No. 11/2006)
 
Dispute before court for determination in terms of recognition agreement – engaging in strike action unlawful YKK Southern Africa (Pty) ltd v SMAWU (IC Case No. 137/2008)
 
Essential service – strike action absolutely prohibited Swaziland Electricity Board v NESMASA and others (IC Case No. 480/2007)
 
Industrial action cannot be taken in respect of dispute not certified as unresolved Swaziland Development and Savings Bank v SUFIAW (IC Case No. 418/2005)
 
Lockout – closure of premises to safeguard assets and employees not a lockout Tom Manyatsi and others v Palfridge (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 581/2007) [2008] SZIC 4[2008] SZIC 9
 
Overtime ban – collective refusal to work overtime where employees not contractually bound to work overtime – does not constitute a strike Swaziland Ranches v SAPWU (IC Case No. 116/1999)
 
Picket – lawful for striking workers to be at or near place of work – no illegality or violence – court declined to limit picket to 50 metres from main entrance Swaziland Meat I ndustries v SMAWU (IC Case No. 208/2004)
 
Picketing – only in pursuance of a lawful strike Swaziland National Housing Board v Commissioner of Labour and another (IC Case No. 183/2001)
 
Picketing – only in pursuance of a lawful strike – onus on applicant to establish legality of strikeSMAWU and others v Siyaspar (Pty) Ltd t/a Nhlangano Spar and others (IC Case No. 374/2008)
 
Protest action – socioeconomic interests Swaziland Government v SFTU and another (IC Case No. 347/2002)
 
Protest action – purpose of LAB intervention – parties bound to accept and participate in mechanism put in place by LAB to resolve disputesSFTU and others v The Swaziland Government and others (IC Case No. 336/2007)
 
Recognition Agreement – compliance with pre-strike procedures Maxiprest Tyres v Swaziland Amalgamated Trade Union (IC Case No. 144/2008)
 
Strike action resumed – employees returning to work without calling off strike – strike may be resumed SMAWU and others v Siyaspar (Pty) Ltd t/a Nhlangano Spar and others (IC Case No. 374/2008)
 
Strike to compel compliance with unlawful demand is unlawful – exclusion of unlawful demand insufficient – strike process tainted and must commence de novo Nedbank Swaziland v SUFIAW (ICA Case No. 11/2006)
 
Withholding labour due to employer’s breach of employment contract is not a strike Swaziland Nurses Association v Board of Trustees of Swaziland Nazarene Health Institutions and another (IC Case No. 117/2005); Swaziland Government v Dr. Augustine Ezeogu & others (IC Case No. 474/2006)
 
Work stoppage – whether amounting to strike Swaziland Electricity Board v SEPMAWU & others (IC Case No. 419/2004)
 
 

               SUSPENSION
Suspension – executive board having disciplinary authority Desmond Nkosinathi Maphanga v Swaziland national Council of Arts and Culture (IC Case No. 268/2008)
 
Suspension without pay pending enquiry – whether employee entitled to prior hearing Nkosingiphile Simelane v Spectrum t/a Master Hardware (IC Case No. 681/2006);Shobane Dube and others v Imvunulo Retail Group (Pty) Ltd t/a Sneakers (IC Case no. 579/2007)
 
Suspension without pay – indefinite - unlawfulNkosingiphile Simelane v Spectrum t/a Master Hardware (IC Case No. 681/2006);Bongani Mdluli v University of Swaziland (IC Case No. 167/2006)
 

               TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT
 
Absenteeism – employee not deemed to have terminated his employment by absenteeism
Paul Siba Simelane v Tibiyo TakaNgwane (IC Case No. 171/1998)
 
Absenteeism Alpheus Thobela Dlamini v Dalcrue Agricultural Holdings (IC Case No. 123/2005)
 
Act of termination – must be clear and unambiguous Paul Siba Simelane v Tibiyo TakaNgwane (IC Case No. 171/1998)
 
Automatically unfair dismissal Mandla Mhlongo v Swaziland Meat Wholesalers (IC
Case No. 270/2002)
 
Automatically unfair dismissal – Applicant dismissed for doing his jobPaul Lincoln Ngarua v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 188/2003)
 
Automatically unfair dismissal – discrimination on grounds of national originDerek Charles McMillan and another v Usuthu Pulp Company t/a Sappi Usuthu (IC Case No. 187/2006)
 
Automatically unfair dismissal – employer compelling employee to accept a demand Russel Thomas Young v Swazi Lottery Trust (IC Case No. 313/2004)
 
Compensation – Industrial Court is not required to peg award to a specific number of months remuneration – provision of vehicle for business and private use not remuneration as defined in IRA or wages as defined in Employment ActGerard Shields v Carson Wheels (IC Case No. 237/2006)
 
Constructive dismissal - see CONSTRUCTIVE DISMISSAL
 
Desertion – repudiation of employment – no need for disciplinary hearingAlpheus Thobela Dlamini v Dalcrue Agricultural Holdings (IC Case No. 123/2005)
 
Disciplinary code – employer should follow its own code Jacob Magongo v Swaziland Building Society (IC Case No. 82/2002)
 
Employee alleging unfair treatment or dismissal has two routes to Industrial CourtMelody Dlamini v The Secretary, Teaching Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 121/2008)
 
Employer entitled to set reasonable standards to which employee must complyHezekiel Soko v Swazi Paper Mills (IC Case No. 206/1998)
 
Fraud inducing employer to enter into employment contract – employer may void contract and labour laws do not apply Phephile Dlamini v Conco Ltd (IC Case No. 64/2004)
 
Maximum compensation for unfair dismissal Edith Nxumalo v The Federation of Swaziland Employers (IC Case No. 108/2002)
 
Maximum compensation -amount amended  by statute– appropriate remedy is that prescribed by statute at date of unfair dismissal Havelock Asbestos Swaziland v David Scholes (ICA Case No. ?/1999)
 
Notice must be clear and unequivocal Paul Siba Simelane v Tibiyo Taka Ngwane (IC Case No. 171/1998)
 
Overtime – no contractual obligation – failure to work overtime not lawful reason to dismiss Fana Matsenjwa v Steelman Engineering Works (IC Case No. 32/1998)
 
Procedural unfairness – inconsistent sanction for fellow employee guilty of same offence Kenneth Mavuso and 3 others v Cashbuild (IC Case No. 139/2002)
 
Reasons
-        absenteeismPaul Siba Simelane v Tibiyo Taka Ngwane (IC Case No. 171/1998; Elizabeth Mkhulisi v Simon Khumalo (IC Case No. 165/2001)
-        abuse of company vehicle Petros Da Silva v Plascon Paint Swaziland (IC Case No. 102/2002)
-        assault – requirements for defences of self-defence and provocation ) Zephania Ngwenya v Royal Swazi Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 262/2001)
-        assaulting fellow employee Abel Kunene v Swaziland Security Guards (IC Case No. 280/2001); Lilian Dlamini v Nantex Textiles Swaziland (IC Case No. 212/1999)
-        dishonestyNkosinathi Ndzimandze and another V Ubombo Sugar Limited (IC Case No. 476/2005) [2008] SZIC 5
-        drunk on duty Goodenough Zwane v United Plantations Ltd t/a Ngonini Estates (IC Case No. 8/2005) [2008] SZIC 7
-        falsification of sicksheet-onus on employer to prove falsification Jabulani Simelane v Cadbury Swaziland (IC Case No. 261/1999)
-        endangerment Sibongiseni Simelane v Swaziland Railway (IC Case No. 214/2002)
-        illegality – no work permit Willem Jacobus De Kock and Kenneth Joseph English v USA Distillers (IC Case No. 97/2002)
-        illegality – employer cannot rely upon illegality if brought about by employer’s own conduct Havelock Asbestos Swaziland v David Scholes (ICA Case No. ?/1999)
-        immoral conduct – only punishable if conduct materially impacts on employment relationship Melody Dlamini v The Secretary, Teaching Service Commission and others (IC Case No. 121/2008)
-        insolence – must be of a sufficiently gross nature to warrant dismissal Russel Thomas Young v Swazi Lottery Trust (IC Case No. 313/2004)
-        insubordination Irene Moeketsi v Metro Cash and Carry (IC Case No. 97/2002); Collie Dlamini v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 105/2005)
-        insubordination – order must be lawful, reasonable and capable of compliance Joshua Mathse v Fidelity Springbok Security Services (IC Case No. 39/2002)
-        misconduct-chronic absenteeism-warning- failure to appeal against previous warning – employee informed of right to appeal – precluded from later contesting validity of warning Sonnyboy Ndzinisa v Cadbury Swaziland (IC Case No. 168/2002)
-        negligence – gross negligence resulting in substantial loss to employer – fair reason for dismissal Hezekiel Soko v Swazi Paper Mills (IC Case No. 206/1998)
-        negligence –ordinary negligence must be dealt with as poor work performance – prior warning required Jabulane Dlamini v Swaziland Oxygen (IC Case No. 74/1999)
-        operating own business without consent of employer Michael Bongani Mashwama v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 345/2002)
-        poor work performance Sibongile Fruhwirth v Conco Swaziland (IC Case No. 320/2004)
-        poor work performance – counselling and training – opportunity to improve Harpet Van Seggelen v Swazi Spa Holdings Limited (IC Case No. 390/2004)
-        poor work performance – failure to meet performance standard -factors to be considered Sabelo Gule v Inyoni Yami Swaziland irrigation Scheme (IC Case No. 31/2004)
-        poor work performance – need for prior warning Jeremiah Mamba v JD Group (IC Case No. 226/2000);Johannes G. Hammann v Unitrans Swaziland (IC Case No. 143/2001); Harpet Van Seggelen v Swazi Spa Holdings Limited (IC Case No. 390/2004)
-        poor work performance – overzealous and critical new manager –previously good record- dismissal unfair Yusuf Themba Vilakati v Ellerines Furniture (IC Case No. 212/1998)
-        poor work performance – senior managerial employee Harpet Van Seggelen v Swazi Spa Holdings Limited (IC Case No. 390/2004)
-        poor work performance – standards – employer entitled to set Harpet Van Seggelen v Swazi Spa Holdings Limited (IC Case No. 390/2004)
-        poor work performance – test for substantive fairness of dismissal based on – employee’s incompetence or incompatability must be irreparable Fikile Nkambule v Transworld Radio (IC Case No. 128/1997)
-        recklessness – Section 36(j) of Employment Act - conduct entailing similar detrimental consequences Ernest Dlamini v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 127/2001)
-        redundancy – see RETRENCHMENT
-        revealing matters of confidential nature Doreen Malwane v Manzini Swift Print (IC Case No. 255/2001)
-        theft Thembi Hlatswayo v Cadbury Swaziland (IC Case No. 301/2000)
-        verbal abuse Antonio Cossa v Atlas Motors (IC Case No. 60/1998)
 
Reasonableness – employment record should be taken into account) Zephania Ngwenya v Royal Swazi Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 262/2001)
 
Reasonableness – seniority may be taken into account Gladman Nhleko v Pep Stores (IC Case No. 159/2003)
 
Reasonableness – separate enquiry required in terms of Section 42(2)(b) of Employment Act Paul Mavundla v Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (IC Case No. 266/2002)
 
Reinstatement - considerations Constance Simelane v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 273/2003)
 
Repatriation expenses Willem Jacobus De Kock & another v USA Distillers (IC Case No. 97/2003)
 
Resignation
-        at instance of employer – employee entitled to terminal benefits Michael Bongani Mashwama v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 134/2001)
-        election to abandon contract of employment Kenneth Sibusiso Nkambule v Swaziland National Housing Board (IC Case No. 134/2001)
-        unilateral act not requiring acceptance Simon Dludlu v Emalangeni Foods (IC Case No. 47/2004)
 
Section 33(bis) of Employment Act – payment of terminal benefits – operative where there is a ‘buy out’ of shares Rudolf Bock v Siyembili Motors Swaziland (IC Case No. 366/2003)
 
Section 36(j) – conduct entailing similar detrimental consequences – cannot apply where offence falls under another subsection of Section 36Johannes G. Hammann v Unitrans Swaziland (IC Case No. 143/2001)
 
Severance allowance –payable upon termination for operational reasons – quaere whether allowance only payable where severance is by employer Lindumuzi Dlamini v Waterford Kamhlaba UWC (IC Case No. 39/2003)
 
Shop steward – dismissal of Themba Tsabedze v Tex-Ray Swaziland (IC Case No. 559/2006)
 
Termination due to sickness – six month period not elapsed - deemed unfair – onus on employer to prove necessity to permanently replace employee Pat Jele v Swazi Observer (IC Case No. 219/2000)
 
Termination of services of public officer must comply with statutory procedures, otherwise termination is a nullity Amos Bhekinkhosi Maseko v Swaziland national Fire and Emergency Services (IC Case No. 302/2002)
 
Union President – dismissed for performing his mandate as union official – dismissal unfairNtokozo Joshua Sikhondze v Swaziland Water Services Corporation (IC Case No. 123/2003)
 

               TRADE UNION
 
Access to workplace – exercised by authorised representative SMAWU v Langa National Brickworks (1987-1995 (Vol.2) SLR 57)
 
Agency Shop agreement – amendment of Industrial Relations Act to allow deduction of agency fee – such deduction unlawful in terms of Employment Act – inference that legislature intended to amend Employment Act to allow deduction Commercial and Allied Workers Union of Swaziland v The Mall Spar (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 300/2008)
 
Authority-No authority to engage in collective bargaining on behalf of workers outside bargaining unit Nedbank Swaziland v SUFIAW (ICA Case No. 11/2006)
 
Deduction of subscriptions – revocation of authority to deduct – written notice requiredCommercial And Allied Workers Union of Swaziland and another v OK Bazaars (Swaziland) (Pty) Ltd t/a Shoprite and another (IC Case No. 110/2008)
 
Employer may not bypass Union and bargain directly with employees SNAT, SNACS and SNA v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 67/1999); SMAWU v Swaziland United Bakeries (IC Case No. 447/2007) [2008] SZIC 6
 
Freedom of association – to be exercised responsibly Swaziland Ranches v SAPWU and others (IC Case No. 116/1999)
 
Infighting – to be resolved by general meeting Sipho Mamba v SMAWU and others (IC Case No. 334/2007)
 
Joinder – application to interdict shop stewards – union should be joined Juris Manufacturing (Pty) Ltd v Zweli Mdluli and others (IC Case No. 471/2008)
 
Locus standi - Union – no locus standi to apply to court in own name on behalf of individual member SMAWU v Swazi Paper Mills (IC Case No. 93/1999);Media Workers Union of Swaziland v African Echo (Pty) Ltd (IC Case no. 161/2007)
 
Locus standi – recognised union has standing to represent members of bargaining unit in proceedings for declaratory order and interdict SNACS v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 62/2005); SMAWU v Swaziland Bottling Company (IC Case No. 179/1998)
 
Locus standi - Union – no locus standi to represent workers in absence of recognition agreement SMAWU and others v Leo Garments (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 387/2008); cf. SMAWU and others v Zheng Yong (Pty) Ltd (IC Case No. 362/2008)
 
Locus standi – union and staff associations – organisation or its bargaining unit must have direct and substantial interest National Electricity Supply Maintenance and Allied Staff Association v Swaziland Electricity Board (IC Case No. 560.2007)
 
Meeting –at workplace – sufficient that some workers are union members SMAWU v Langa National Brickworks (1987-1995 (Vol.2) SLR 57)
 
Non-member of union not precluded from appointment as officer SMAWU v Swazi Paper Mills (IC Case No. 190/1999)
 
Shop steward – discipline of Themba Tsabedze v Tex-Ray Swaziland (IC Case No. 559/2006)
 
Trade Union – may represent any category of employee SPPMAWU v Usuthu Pulp Company and another (IC Case No.6/2002)
 
Union President – dismissed for performing his mandate as union official – dismissal unfairNtokozo Joshua Sikhondze v Swaziland Water Services Corporation (IC Case No. 123/2003)
 

               TRAINING
Employment of trainee must be in terms of written contract William Dlamini and another v Attorney General and another (IC Case No. 176/2000)
 
Vocational instructor – definition Patrick Simelane v The Teaching Service Commission and another (IC Case No. 564/2007)
 

               WAGES AND SALARIES
 
Advance - recovery by deductions under Section 56(1)(d) of Employment Act – not limited to one-third of salary Ernest Vusi Thwala v Accountant General and others (IC Case No. 357/2003)
 
Acting allowance Nikiwe Nyoni v Acting Commissioner of Anti-Corruption Unit & others (IC Case No. 164/2005)
 
Deductions – employer may not deduct or set off monies alleged to be misappropriated without order of court P. Ramuntu Freight Services  v Fortunate Hlatswayo (IC Case No. 366/2005)
 
Leave pay – onus on employer to prove payment Jabu Mthethwa and others v YKK Zippers and another (IC Case No. 128/2007)
 
Merit increment – company policy providing measurable objective criteria – unfair to deny increment contrary to criteria Ntombi Dlamini v Swaziland Building Society (IC Case No. 36/1998)
 
Minimum wage - job designation - functions and duties more important than mere nomenclature Absalom Mavuso and others v Sinkhwa Semaswati Ltd t/a Mr. Bread Bakery (IC Case No. 235/2002)
 
No work, no pay rule – does not apply when failure to work not attributable to employee Enock Shongwe v Silver Solutions Investments (IC Case No. 235/2004)
 
Non-payment –order to pay wages on due date is order ad pecuniam solvendam – cannot be enforced by contempt proceedings Swaziland Nurses Association v Board of Trustees of Swaziland Nazarene Health Institutions and another (IC Case No. 117/2005)
 
Overpaid in error – recovery by deductions – requirements of condictio indebiti Aaron Fakazi Kunene v PS, Agriculture and Cooperatives & others (IC Case No. 296/2004)
 
Performance bonus – meaning of ‘profit’ Stuart Banks v Imphilo Clinic (Pty) Ltd and others (IC Case No. 528/2007)
 
Retainer of sales representative constitutes ‘wages’ Sabelo Mncina v Ellerines Furnishers (IC Case No. 41/2007)
 
Set Off – common law defence of set-off limited to deductions authorised by Employment ActP. Ramuntu Freight Services  v Fortunate Hlatswayo (IC Case No. 366/2005)
 
Severance allowance – provisions of wages regulation order extending circumstances in which severance allowance payable are ultra vires Samuel Zikalala v Jomar Investments (IC Case No. 672/2006)
 
Stoppage of wages – serious implications – unexplained – warrants special order of costsMduduzi Zulu v Principal Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resources and another (IC Case No. 193/2008)
 
Unsatisfactory work performance – employer not entitled to stop wages Phiwokuhle Zulu v The Swaziland Co-operative Tobacco Company (IC Case No. 278/2007)
 
Wages Act – Labour Commissioner has direct access to court to recover underpayment of wages on behalf of employees – no need for claim to be routed through dispute resolution procedures provided by part V111 of Industrial Relations Act 2000 The Commissioner of Labour and another v Sailas & T. Security Services (IC Case No. 700/2006)
 
Unjust enrichment – employer who accepts benefit of work done must compensate employee Collin Shongwe v Swaziland Government (IC Case No. 77/2000); Hyson Mkhatshwa v PS Health and Social Welfare and others (IC Case No. 117/2002)
 
 

               WARNING
Failure to appeal against warning – employee informed of right to appeal – precluded from later contesting validity of warning Sonnyboy Ndzinisa v Cadbury Swaziland (IC Case No. 168/2002)
 
Issue of written warning – should be preceded by proper enquiry Phineas Shongwe v Guard Alert Security Services (IC Case No. 35/2005)
 
Insubordination -  written warning prior to dismissal required Cyril Simelane v Swazi Paper mills (IC Case no. 115/1997)
 
Purpose to provide opportunity to mend ways Fana Matsenjwa v Steelman Engineering Works (IC Case No. 32/1998)
 
Should indicate the consequences of future non-compliance Fikile Nkambule v Transworld Radio(IC Case No. 128/1997)
 
Warning for poor work performance –nature of – no prior enquiry needed – in addition to counselling and training  Harpet Van Seggelen v Swazi Spa Holdings Limited (IC Case No. 390/2004)

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